Department of Zoology

 

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DEPARTMENT

 

The Department came into being at the time the University and the Faculty of Science (as it then was) was created in 1975/76 academic session. First set of the Bachelor’s Degree programme students graduated in 1980 whilst the Master of Science graduates were in 1978.  The first Doctorate was produced in 1987.  Ever since that time, the Department has graduated many students in the first degree category and higher degree as well.  Many are in the various fields of human endeavours fulfilling the national aspirations of the government and industry.  A number who returned to the academic system have risen to become Professors, Heads of Departments and Deans and Provosts of College of Education and currently the Vice-Chancellor of the University.

The Department has recorded many national and international recognition for excellent and productive scholarship.  Between 1980-1988, the World Health Organisation Regional Training Centre in Medical Entomology and Parasitology for West African was based here.  Prior to that, the National  Science and Technological Development Agency (NSTDA), which today is the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology had recognised the expertise in the Department and given support to the researches conducted here.  Also, the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) was based in the Department between 1983-1987 engaged in research in Medical Entomology.

The staff strength at the foundation of the Department was initially four.  The first Head of Department was Prof. C. Ejike.  Since then, the succession to the Headship of the department has progressed as follows: Prof. C. Ejike (1976-1978, 1979-1980), Prof. J.A. Ajayi (1978-1979, 1984-85, 1987-1988, and 1991-1995), Prof. M.O.E. Iwula (1983), Dr.D.M Roberts (1985-1987).  Prof. V.N. Okwuosa (1988-1990), Prof. J.O.A Onyeka (1989-1990), Prof. C.O.E.Onwuliri (1990-1991), Prof. D.D. Duhlinska (1997). Prof. Anyawu (2001-2004), Prof Molta (2004-2006), Prof. Ofojekwu (2006), Prof. Mrs. G. S. Mwansat (2009-2014), Prof Mrs. O.O. Ajayi (2015 - date).  Today, the staff strength in the Department stands at 30 permanent academic staff and 15 non academic staff.

The Department of Zoology, University of Jos, offers courses to students leading to the award of the B.Sc degree in pure and applied Zoology, Master of Science (M.Sc)  in Applied Entomology and Parasitology; Hydrobiology and Fisheries, Conservation Biology and the Doctorate degree in Entomology (Medical & Agriculture); Parasitology (Human &Veterinary); Hydrobiology and Fisheries and Conservation Biology.

The Bachelors degree in this Department is not only a specialist programme in the traditional sense, but it is also programmed to be as relevant to the Nation’s needs as possible.

The programme is based on the National Universities Commission (NUC) approved minimum standard (1990) for all Nigeria Universities.  In reflection to the specialised nature of our former degree programme the relevant aspect of the syllabus was incorporated into the new syllabus to achieve the specialised interest in the discipline.

Since its inception in 1976, the Department of Zoology has been deeply involved in teaching practical and relevant Zoology. That remains our greatest concern and the vision has been injected into the current programme. Furthermore, the new programme aims to produce Zoologists who are exposed to a wider area of human, animal, and ecological organisations and distribution. Both objectives are fully manipulated to achieve greater heights in the teaching of Zoology, in order to produce relevant and effective manpower for the country’s needs and the society at large.

The philosophy of the programme therefore aims at producing graduates that will be useful in the following areas of the country’s needs

  1. Secondary and Tertiary Institutions
  2. Research Institutions
  3. Hospitals, Agricultural and Forestry Establishments
  4. Ministries, Oil Companies and Foreign services
  5. Libraries (Science Reference Librarians) etc

Students for the Bachelors Degree may be admitted either by

  1. Passing the Universities Matriculation Examination (UME) after having obtained the Senior Secondary School Certificate with five credits which must include Biology, Chemistry, English, Agricultural Science, and Mathematics or GCE “O” Level pass in the same subjects with a similar provision.
  2. Admission to the Bachelor’s programme may be by Direct Entry to the three year standard programme upon obtaining “O” Level SSCE of GCE with credits in these five subjects in addition to “A/L” GCE passes in Zoology (or Biology) and Chemistry. An “A” level pass in Physics or Mathematics will be an advantage but is not mandatory. Candidates are selected by JAMB.
  3. Students in the Department of Remedial Studies. University of Jos who pass their end of session examinations in five subjects are also considered for admission into the B.Sc (Hons) Zoology Degree Programme.

 

  1. A grading system using both letter (A-F) and figure (0-5) is more consistent

With the system of degree classification in use in Nigeria, and is therefore approved for adoption.

  1. The Percentage Score (%), Letter Grades (LG), Grade Point Average (GPA), Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) and Classes of Degree, as approved for adoption are as shown in the table below.

(i)

Credit Units

(ii)

Scores (%)

(iii)

Letter

Grades

(LG)

(iv)

Grade Points (GP)

(v)

Grade Point average (GPA)

(vi)

Cumulative

Average (CGPA)

(vii)

Class of Degree

 

70-100

A

4

 

3.50 - 4.00.

First Class

 

60-69

B

3

 

3-00 - 3.49

2nd Class Upper

 

50-59

C

2

 

2.00 – 2.99

2nd Class Lower

 

45-49

D

1

 

1.00 – 1.99

Third Class

 

0-44

F

0

 

0 .00 - 0.99

Fail

N.B

a.   Column (i) vary according to the contact hours assigned to each course per week and according to work load carried by the student

b.   Column (v) derived by multiplying columns i & iv and dividing by total credit units

(iii)       A minimum pass mark of 45% (equivalent to GP of I) is approved for    

uniform adoption.  Also a minimum CGPA of 1 is required for graduation.

Grade Point (GP): The Grade Point derive from the actual percentage raw score for a given course; the raw score is converted into a letter grade and a grade point (see Table)

Grade Point Average (GPA): Performance in any semester is reported in Grade Point Average.  This is average of weighted grade points earned in the courses taken during the semester.  The Grade Point Average is obtained by multiplying the Grade Point attained in each course by the number of Credit units assigned to that course, and then summing these up and dividing by the total number of Credit Units taken for the semester.

Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA): This is the up-to-date mean of the Grade Points earned by the student in a programme of study. It is an indication of the student’s overall performance at any point in the training programme. To compute the Cumulative grade point average, the total of Grade Points multiplied by the respective Credit Units for all the semesters are added and then divided by the total number of Credit Units for all courses registered by the student.

 

Course Content

Course No.

100 level

Core Courses

Course Title

Units

Semester

Pre – requisite

BIO

101 (PST)

General Biology I

4

1

 

BIO

102

General Biology II

4

2

 

CHM

101

General Physical Chemistry I

3

1

 

CHM

102

General Organic Chemistry II

3

2

 

CHM

103

Practical Physical Chemistry

1

1

 

CHM

104

Practical Organic Chemistry

1

2

 

MTH

101

Elementary Mathematic I

3

1

 

MTH

103

Elementary Mathematic III

3

2

 

PHY

101

General Physical I

3

1

 

PHY

103

General Physical III

3

2

 

PHY

105/107

General Physical Laboratory

2

1

 

GST

101

Use of English

4

1 & 2

 

GST

102

Philosophy and logic

2

2

 

GST

103

Nigerian People & Culture

2

1

 

GST

104

History & Philosophy of Science

2

1

 

 

 

TOTAL CREDITS

40

 

 

Elective Courses

* ZOO

102

Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

2

1

 

   BIO

103

Basic Parasitology

3

2

 

* BIO

105 (PST)

Practical Biology (Zoology)

3

2

 

    *CS

101

Introductory Computer Science

2

1

 

 

 

TOTAL CREDIT

47-50

 

 

 

BIO

201 (PST)

Genetics I

2

1

 

BIO

202

Introductory Ecology

2

2

 

BIO

204

Biological Techniques

2

1

 

BOT

202 (PST)

Seedless Plants

2

2

 

CHM

211

Organic Chemistry II

3

1

CHM 102

STA

BIO 202  (PST)

Statistics for Agriculture & Biological Sciences

4

2

 

ZOO

201

Lower Invertebrates

2

1

 

ZOO

202

Coelomate Invertebrates

2

2

 

ZOO

203

Chordates

3

2

 

CS

201

Computer Programming I

2

1

CS 101

ZOO

204

Tissue and Organ Histology

3

2

 

 

 

TOTAL CREDITS

28

 

 

 

CST

101-104

To be taken by all direct entry students

10

 

 

 

 

TOTAL CREDITS

38

 

 

Elective Courses

* BIO

203

General Physiology

2

2

 

* BIO

205 (PST)

Introductory Development Cell Biology

3

2

 

BOT

203 (PST)

Seed Plants

2

1

 

CHM

213

Analytical Chemistry I

2

2

CHM 101,                                                                                                                                                                                     

CHM 102

MCB

201

General Microbiology

4

1

 

 

 

TOTAL CREDIT

33-51

 

 

BIO

301 (PST)

Genetics II

3

1

BIO 201

BIO

302

Field Course I

1

2

 

BIO

311

General Biochemistry

3

1

 

ZOO

303

Animal Physiology

3

1

BIO 203

ZOO

304

Animal Behaviour

3

2

 

ZOO

305

Basic Entomology

3

1

ZOO 202

ZOO

306

Animal Ecology

2

2

BIO 202

ZOO

399

Industrial Field Experience in any one of the following:

(a) Fisheries

(b) Wildlife management

(c) Biology of Aquatic

     Environment / Pollution

(d) Pest Control

(e) Animal and Public Health

 

6

2

 

 

 

TOTAL CREDITS

24

 

 

Elective Courses

BIO

309

Introduction to Nematology

3

2

 

*ZOO

301

Protozoology (compulsory)

3

1

ZOO 201

*ZOO

302

Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy II

3

1

ZOO 102

*ZOO

307

Evolution of the Chordates

3

2

ZOO 203

*ZOO

310

Research Methods

2

2

 

 

 

TOTAL CREDIT

33-42

 

 

 

 

BIO

408

Fisheries and Aquaculture

3

1

 

BIO

409

Population Ecology

2

2

BIO 202

ZOO 306

BIO

410

Conservation & Development of Natural Resources

2

2

 

BIO

413

 Field Course II

2

1

BIO 302

ZOO

402

Applied Entomology

3

1

ZOO 305

ZOO

403

Parasitology I

3

1

ZOO 201

ZOO 302

ZOO

404

Parasitology II

3

2

ZOO 201

ZOO

499

Project

6

1 & 2

STABIO 202, ZOO 301

ZOO

406

Comparative Vertebrate Embryology

3

2

BIO 205

 

 

TOTAL CREDITS

27

 

 

Elective Courses

*BIO

407

Hydrobiology

3

1

BIO 202

  BIO

411

General Biochemistry II

3

1

BIO 311

*BIO

412

Toxicology

3

2

 

*BIO

414

Molecular Biology

3

2

 

MCB

303

Immunology & Immunochemistry

3

1

 

*ZOO

405

Nigerian Animal or

3

2

ZOO 203

ZOO 306

ZOO

415

Wildlife Ecology & Conservation

3

1

BIO 202

ZOO 306

 

 

TOTAL CREDIT

39-45

 

 

*Courses indicated with an asterisk are compulsory elective for Zoology major students.

Also, courses indicated as PST are Plant Science & Technology Coordinated Courses.

100 LEVEL

 

BIO 101: General Biology I (4 Units) = I Semester

Characteristics and classification of living things. The cell theory; animal and plant cell structures and organization; functional anatomy and diversity of cellular organelles. Interrelationships of organisms, niches, food chains, trophic levels, productivity and energy cycling elements of population ecology and ecological methods, and types of habitats. Heredity and evolution.

 

ZOO 102: Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy I (2 Units) - I Semester

Classification of Phylum Chordata. Overview of the members of subphylum vertebrata. Anatomical similarities and differences among vertebrates.  Structural and functional adaptations of aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates.

 

BIO 102: General Biology II (4 Units) = II Semester

A generalized survey of plant and animal kingdoms based mainly on the study of similarities and differences in the external and internal features and ecological adaptations of the different forms. Groups to study include viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, and spermatophytes (gymnosperms and angiosperms); protozoa, porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, nematode, annelida, arthropods, mollusca, echinodermata, protochordata and vertebrata.

 

BIO 103: Basic Parasitology (3 Units) = II Semester

A brief history of Parasitology in Nigeria in general and in the Department of Zoology, University of Jos in particular. The phenomenon and interrelationships between parasites on their hosts (including injurious effects of parasites on their hosts). Morphology, life cyc;es and life cycle patterns, pathogenesis and pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis, immunity, economic importance, prevention and control of relevant examples of parasites and diseases cased by the parasites in the tropics with particular reference to Nigeria and West Africa Sub-region. Groups to study  should include viruses, rickettsia, spirochetes, protozoa helminthes (trematodes, cestodes and nematodes), and arthropods. Parasitic zoonoses

 

BIO 105: Practical Biology (3 Units) = II Semester

Principles of microscopy, Introduction to Biological Drawing Techniques. Introduction to classification and varieties of animals. Visit to zoos and wildlife parks. Study of external features of animals. Culture media in zoological studies, culturing of animals, animal tissues and cells, fish culture  (Aquaculture) techniques.

Quantitative Ecology:

(a) Methods of measuring environmental factors

(b) Biotic analysis.

Dissection of representatives of different groups of Invertebrate, proto chordate and chordate to expose their respiratory, circulatory, osmoregulatory, neural and endocrine and reproductive systems.

 

200 LEVEL

 

BIO 201: Genetics I (2 Units) = I Semester  

Heritable and non-heritable characteristics. Probability of tests of goodness of fit. Quantitative inheritance; variation in genome structure. Introduction to population         

genetics.

 

BIO 204:  Biological Techniques  (2 Units) = I Semester

Microscope, preparation of microscope slides, photometry, colorimetry, chromatography, conductometry, experimental design.

 

ZOO 201:    Lower Invertebrates (2 Units) = I Semester     

Outline treatment of the protozoa and lower metazoan groups.

 

BIO 202: Introductory Ecology (2 Units) = II Semester

Concepts and Definitions of Ecosystem: Ecosystems and energy flow. Biogeochemical cycles – the cycling of matter factors influencing environments and habitats community ecology. Production ecology. Human impacts on ecosystems conservation. Quantitative ecology – Ecological Measurements.

 

 

BIO 203: General Physiology (2 Units) = II Semester

Physical and chemical processes in animal and plant physiology.

 

BIO 205: Introductory Developmental Cell Biology (3 Units) = II Semester

History and present trends in cell biology; reproduction and cell division, differentiation and growth, a brief study of the molecular basis of cell structure and  development, organelles, proteins and nucleic acids.

 

STA BIO 202: Statistics for Agricultural and Biological Sciences (4 Units) = II Semester

Use of statistical methods in Biology and Agriculture, frequency distributions. Law of probability, normal, and abnormal and poison probability distributions. Estimation and tests of hypothesis, design of simple agricultural and biological experiments, analysis of variance and covariance, simple regression and correlation, contingency tables. Some non-parametric tests.

 

ZOO 202: Coelomate Invertebrates (2 Units) = II Semester

Organization and Ecology of the higher metazoan groups.

 

ZOO 203: Chordates (3 Units) – II Semester

Systematic study of the living vertebrates.

 

* ZOO 204: Tissue and Organ Histology (3 Units) = II Semester

Principles of histogenesis, from generation in biological structures. Environmental influence on cell association and histogenesis. Basic tissue types and histology of the major organ systems.

 

300 LEVEL

 

BIO 311: General Biochemistry (3 Units) = I Semester

Chemistry of amino acids, proteins and their derivatives, methods of isolation and identification, acidity, alkalinity, pH and PK values and their effects on cellular activities, buffers, chemistry/structures of carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic.

 

BIO 301: Genetics II (3 Units) = I Semester

Aspects of human genetics, pedigree analysis. Further consideration of deviation of deviations from basic principles, gene interaction.

 

*BIO 302: Field Course I (1 Unit) = II Semester

Sampling techniques in local habitats.

 

* ZOO 301: Protozoology (3 Units) = I Semester

The major protozoan groups and their ways of life. The characteristics and evolution of protozoans.

 

ZOO 302: Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy II (3 Units) = I Semester

Comparative anatomy of the various vertebrate groups (fish, amphibian, reptile, bird and mammal) with emphasis in their integumentary, skeletal, muscular, digestive, circulatory, respiratory, excretory, nervous system, endocrine and reproductive systems.

 

ZOO 303:  Animal Physiology( 3 Units)  = I Semester

The principles of physiological adaptations and homeostatis. Thermal relations of animals salt/water balance, balanced excretion, respiration, neuromuscular physiology, endocrinology.

 

ZOO 304:  Animal Behaviour  (3 Units)   = I  Semester

Behaviour as a function of nervous complexity. Orientation learning, instinct and behaviour patterns in animals. Territoriality, reproductive behaviour.                     

 

ZOO 305: Basic Entomology (3 Units)  = I Semester

Insect evolution, classification and distribution. Organization of external structure. Ingestion, digestion and excretion. Blood circulation, water system, behaviour and ecology of social insects.

 

ZOO 306: Animal Ecology (2 Units) = I Semester

Animal populations and communities in the regulation of numbers, the ecology The regulation of numbers, the ecology of local terrestrial and aquatic animals.    

 

* ZOO 307: Evolution of the Chordates (3 Units) = I Semester

The origin and evolution of chordates and vertebrates

 

* ZOO 310: Research Methodology (2 Units) = I Semester

Introduction to elements and concepts of philosophy of science. Use of Biological Abstracts and Literature survey. Ethical considerations in the research involving the use of laboratory animals. Design of Biological experiments and

ZOO 399: Industrial Field Experience (6 Units) = II Semester

The whole of second semester is devoted to industrial field experience – During this period students have an opportunity to be involved in practical projects. It is time to explore the reality and applicability f what has been taught in the classroom. Depending on personal interest the students are attached to the following areas:

 a) Fisheries

 b) Wildlife management

 c)  Biology of aquatic environment

 d)  Pest control

 e)   Animal and Public Health

The department prides itself on its large number of industrial contacts and they include institutions like: General Hospitals, Veterinary clinics, Fish Farms, Environmental conservation Agencies, etc. These links with industries enrich our degree scheme and add greater value to our courses.

 

400 LEVEL

 

BIO 411: General Biochemistry II  ( 3 Units) =  I Semester

Primary, Secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins, determination and biochemical applications of these structures. Nomenclature of nucleosides, effects of acid and alkali on hydrolysis of nucleic acids, structures and functions of major cell components, prokaryotic versus eukaryotic organisms.

 

*BIO 407: Hydrobiology (3 Units) = I Semester (Pre requisite BIO 202)

Comparative study of conditions of life in marine, brackish and fresh waters. Limnology, production in aquatic systems; planktons, periphyton, macrophtes  and macro-invertebrates. Pollution studies including method of pollution abatement.

 

BIO 408: Fisheries and Aquaculture (3 Units) = I Semester

Fish biology, types of aquaculture. Various aquaculture techniques and aspects of fish culture. Harvest and preservation methods.                                           

 

BIO 413: Field Course II (2 Units) = I Semester

This is designed to give students an opportunity to carry out a small independent research project dealing with plant material, approved by the Departmental Board and under the supervision of one or more members of staff.

 

ZOO 402: Applied Entomology (3 Units) = II Semester (Pre requisite ZOO 305)

Principles of applied entomology and elements of chemical and biological control.

ZOO 403: Parasitology I (3 Units) = I Semester (Pre requisite ZOO 201 & 302)  

Taxonomy and morphology of important protozoans with main emphasis on those which cause diseases in man and domestic animals. The epidemiology and control of these parasites and their socio-economic effects in Nigeria.

 

ZOO 415: Wildlife Ecology (3 Units) = I Semester (Pre requisite BIO 202 & ZOO 306)

Principles of wildlife ecology techniques of estimation of wildlife population diversity. Environmental population and its impact on the natural resources.

 

ZOO 499: Research Project (6 Units) = I & II Semesters (Pre requisite ZOO 310)

In the final year (level) students carry out laboratory or field-based research projects. This is compulsory and popular part of the course. Research project are carried out independently under staff supervision for one session. The results are submitted in a temporary bound form as a thesis to the Department. Usually an oral defence of the thesis (Viva voce) is conducted by an external assessor from a different University. After oral examination the student should then submit three permanently bound copies of his/her thesis incorporating all corrections/amendments, if any, the examiners should have pointed out.

 

BIO 409: Population Ecology (2 Units) = II Semester (Pre requisite BIO 202 & ZOO 306)

Population parameters, population growths and bionomic, strategies, competition, predation and mutualism, regulation of population size.

 

BIO 410: Conservation and Development of Natural Resources (2 Units) = II Semester       

Principles of resources management and land use allocation. Population growth and food production, forestry and game conservation, soil conservation and environmental pollution.

*BIO 412: Toxicology (3 Units) = II Semester

Pesticides formulation/Application. Insecticides – organophosphates, carbamates, organochlorides, molluscides, Nematocides, Acaricides, fungicides, Herbicides, pesticides resistance, Environmental fate of pesticides-soil, Air, Aquatic ecosystems, metabolism and toxicity in fish/Histopathological considerations, sublethal tests/fish Heamatology, Environmental protection on implication for pesticide safety, statistical data analysis methods – (1) Abbot formula, (2) Wilcolxon & Litchfield (3) UNEP. Ideas behind testing of new chemicals.

*BIO 414: Molecular Biology (3 Units) = II Semester

Biochemical and unchemical genetic structure, properties and functions of DNA and RNA the evolution of genetic systems. The structure conformation and other properties of proteins, polysaccharides, glycoprotein cell wall structures.

 

ZOO 404: Parasitology II (3 Units) = II Semester (Pre-Requisite ZOO 201)

Taxonomy and morphology of helminthes parasites of man and domestic animals. The epidemiology and control of these parasites and their socio-economic effects in Nigeria.

 

*ZOO 405: Nigerian Animals (3 Units) = II Semester

Knowledge of Nigerian animal resources, species present in a habitat, their interactions and how they respond to disturbance.

 

ZOO 406: Comparative Vertebrate Embryology (3 Units) = I Semester (Pre-requisite BIO 205)

Spermatogenesis and cogenesis, the egg and its envelopes, mechanisms and consequences of fertilization Cleavage. Blastulation, gastrulation, organogenesis, extra embryonic membranes.

 

ZOO 415: Wildlife Ecology (3 Units) = I Semester (Pre requisite BIO 202 & ZOO 306)

Principles of wildlife ecology techniques of estimation of wildlife population diversity. Environmental population and its impact on the natural resources.

                       

ZOO 499:       Research Project (6 Units) = I & II Semester (Pre-requisites STA BIO 202, ZOO 310)

NOTE: Courses indicated with an asterisk are compulsory elective courses for zoology students