Department Of Physics

 

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS

The Department of Physics is one of the foundation departments of the Faculty of Natural Sciences.  From September, 1973, it prepared students for the direct entry to the University of Ibadan of which the present University was a Campus.  By 1979 the Department produced its first batch of graduates in Physics and in 1983 the first batch of Postgraduate students passed out.

LOCATION OF PHYSICAL FACILITIES

The Department has 4 blocks of laboratories and an Atmospheric Physics observatory at the Bauchi Road Campus.  The prefabricated structures were originally equipped for the 100 and 200 level practical work.  One of them is on loan to the Department of Remedial Studies.  The first floor of the storey building by the side of A1 accommodates 100 and 200 level laboratories, staff offices, toilets, staff common room and a lecture room for about 50 students (Room 201) reserved for 300 level lectures mainly. The Physics Laboratory III is equipped for 300 and 400 level practical work.  The Postgraduate Common Room is located there.  A Seminar room capable of seating 40 students in that block is reserved for 400 level lectures and Department seminars. In addition to the offices attached to the Laboratories, the following offices are available to the Department:

Natural Sciences Admin. Complex – Rooms 30, 31, 32 and Rooms 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57 in the former Social Sciences Block.

The Physics store is located opposite the University Primary School, it houses spare laboratory equipment in addition to those equipment awaiting repairs.

 

  • Philosophy:

    Physics as a discipline is involved in the objective investigation of the interactions of the forces of nature with matter. These investigations are basically empirical and experimental in approach and serve as confirmation of, or lead to new, theoretical formulation in a mutually reciprocal relationship. Our Curriculum is therefore biased towards the experimental and applied studies; based on a sound theoretical background.

  • Goals and Objectives

    The goal of the Physics course at the University of Jos is to produce graduates grounded in the basic theories of Physics, experimental techniques and theory applications. It is our goal to prepare our graduates for a carrier in either research and development and or teaching or for entry into some specific technological profession. In the various courses of study, therefore, we aim at imparting an appreciation of current problems, modern techniques and trends in Physics. By the end of their course we expect that our students should have acquired the following:

    1. The mathematical competence required for the study of Physics at this level.
    2. At least a good understanding of the theoretical principles of Physics as contained in the NUC Minimum Academic Standards Curriculum for Physics
    3. An appreciation of the current problems, modern techniques and trends in Physics
    4. A familiarization of the required manipulative skills of the equipment in a Physics Laboratory.
Candidates admitted into the Physics honours degree programme should have gained the Senior School Certificate (WAEC/NECO) with at least 5 credits or an approval equivalent qualification, which must include Physics, Mathematics, Chemistry and English for the 4-year programme. For admission into the 3-year programme, the candidate must have the above requirements plus Physics and Mathematics at the Advanced Level G.C.E., N.C.E., Diploma (not lower than lower credit) or recognized equivalents.
The Physics programme has remained relevant in
  • Developing the mind and intellect of the individual
  • Training in the basics of the Physical Sciences
  • Training in the specialized areas of Physics i.e Atmospheric Physics, Medical & Biophysics, Electronics & Communications, Acoustics, Geophysics, enabling graduates to fit into the Medical sector, Engineering & Technology, Meteorology and Communications.
  • Equipping in handling laboratory and industrial equipment
  • Training and repositioning graduates to be academic and research oriented
  • Offering service courses to the students of Natural, Medical, Pharmaceutical, Environmental and Education Faculties.
Examinations are conducted in accordance with regulations approved from time to time by the University Senate. To sit for any end-of-course examination, candidates must be duly registered for the course, and attain 75% point in attendance at the course lectures/laboratory practical/tutorials. Students who are absent from lectures/laboratories/tutorials must communicate their reasons to their course lecturers. Every course shall be examined during the academic semester for which it is taken. End of course examination will consist of one or more of the following:
  1. written examination – 60%
  2. continuous assessments – 40%
  3. practicals – 60%, examinations on practicals - 40%
  4. final year undergraduate project work graded through seminar presentation, report assessment and oral defence.
  5. SIWES- 6 months industrial attachment, graded through industry and university supervisors, seminar presentation and report assessment

The following letter grades are attached to the examination scores:

%MARK

LETTER GRADE

GRADE POINT

A = 70 -100

A

4

B = 60 – 69

B

3

C = 50 – 59

C

2

D = 45 – 49

D

1

E = 0 – 44

E

0

The minimum pass mark for each course is 45% D

For the award of the Bachelor’s degree in Physics a student must successfully complete the prescribed courses and obtain a cumulative grade point average (CGPA) not less than 1.
For each year of study, except in the first year of study when only the Grade point average will be used the cumulative grade point average of a student shall be calculated. Any student whose cumulative grade point average, CGPA is less than 1 will be placed on probation for one year and if after the probation the cumulative grade point average is still less than 1 the student shall be asked to withdraw from the Department.

Programme content

Presented below are the courses offered in the Department. The availability of some of the courses listed under electives depends on the staffing situation in the Department. The courses are codified with the letters PHY followed by a three-digit code.
The first digit in the course code represents the level of study in a four-year degree programme i.e 1,2,3 & 4 for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd & 4th years of study respectively.

COURSE

CODE

CORE COURSES

CREDIT

UNIT

SEM.

PHY 101

GENERAL PHYSICS I (MECHANICS)

3

1

PHY 102

GENERAL PHYSICS II ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM & WAVES

3

2

PHY 103

GENERAL PHYSICS III

3

1

PHY 107

GENERAL PHYSICS LABORATORY I

2

1

PHY 108

GENERAL PHYSICS LABORATORY II

2

2

MTH 101

ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS I – ALGEBRA & TRIGONOMETRY

3

1

MTH 102

ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS II – VECTORS GEOMETRY AND DYNAMICS PRE-REQUISITE MTH 101

3

1

MTH 103

ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS III – CALCULUS PRE-REQUISITE MTH 101, 102

3

2

CHM 101

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY  1

3

1

CHM 103

PRACTICAL PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

1

1

CHM 105

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY I

3

2

CHM 106

PRACTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1

2

GST 101

USE OF ENGLISH

4

1,2

GST 102

PHILOSOPHY & LOGIC

2

2

GST 103

NIGERIAN PEOPLES AND CULTURE

2

1

GST 104

HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

2

1

CS 101

INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SCIENCE I

2

1

COURSE

CODE

CORE COURSES

CREDIT

UNIT

SEM.

PHY 201

GENERAL PHYSICS IV (ELMENTARY MODERN PHYSICS) PR PHY101

3

2

PHY 202

ELECTRIC CIRCUITS & ELECTRONICS I          PR: PHY102

3

1

PHY 204

GENERAL PHYSICS V  (OPTICS AND WAVES)   PR: PHY102

3

1

PHY 205

THERMAL PHYSICS PRE-REQUISITE 103

3

1

PHY 206

GENERAL PHYSICS VI (ENERGY RESOURCES)

1

1

PHY207

EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS I         PR: PHY107

1

1

PHY208

EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS II         PR: PHY108

1

2

PHY 211

MECHANICS,  PRE-REQUISITE PHY 101

3

1

PHY 241

ELECTROMAGNETISM,  PRE-REQUISITE PHY 102

3

2

MTH 201

MATHEMATICAL METHODS I, PRE-REQUISITE – MTH 103

3

1

MTH 202

ELEMENTARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, PRE-REQUISITE    MTH 103

3

1

MTH 203

SET LOGIC AND ALBEBRA I, PRE-REQUISITE MTH 101

3

1

MTH 204

LINEAR ALBEBRA I, PRE-REQUISITE MTH 101, 103

2

1

MTH 207

REAL ANALYSIS I, PR-REQUISITE MTH 101, 103

3

1

STA 203

STATISTICS FOR PHYSICAL SCIENCES

4

2

CS 201

COMPUTER PROGRAMMING I, PRE-REQUISITE CS 101

4

1

GST222

PEACE AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION STUDIES

2

1,2

GST223

ENTREPRENEURSHIP STUDIES

2

1

 

ELECTIVE COURSE

 

 

PHY 242

ELECTRIC CIRCUITS & ELECTRONICS II

1

2

COURSE

CODE

CORE COURSES

CREDIT

UNIT

SEM.

 

PHY 301

ANALYTICAL MECHANICS I        PRE: MTH 201

3

1

PHY 303

ELECTRICITY & MAGNETICSM II  PRE:PHY102 & MTH 202

3

1

PHY 305

QUANTUM PHYSICS       PRE: PHY201

3

1

PHY 306

STATISTICAL AND THERMAL PHYSICS  PRE: PHY205

3

1

PHY 307/308

EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS  V   PRE: PHY207/208

2

1&2

PHY 309

ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT II   PRE: PHY206

2

1

PHY 314

SOLID STATE PHYSICS I  PRE: PHY201

3

1

PHY 322

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS  PRE: MTH 201 &203

3

1

MTH 304

COMPLEX ANALYSIS PRE-REQUISITE MTH 203, 207

3

1

PHY 395

SIWES: INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT (PRE:No lower 2nd semester courses of more than  7 units)

6

2

PHY 331

OPTICS I

3

1

 

                        FOR D.E CANDIDATES

 

 

GST 103

NIGERIAN PEOPLES AND CULTURE

2

1

GST 104

HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE           

2

1

                                             ELECTIVE COURSES

PHY 334

BIOPHYSICS I

3

1

PHY 335

ACOUSTICS I

3

1

PHY 361

ELECTRONICS I

3

1

PHY 363

PHYSICS OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

3

1

PHY 381

ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICS

3

1

PHY 383

INTRODUCTION TO GEOPHYSICS I

3

1

PHY 364

ELECRONIC DEVICES AND DEVICE MANUFACTURE

3

1

MTH 307

REAL ANALYSIS II

3

2

COURSE

CODE

CORE COURSES

CREDIT

UNIT

SEM.

PHY 401

QUANTUM MECHANICS I    PRE: PHY305

3

1

PHY 402

QUANTUM MECHANICS II    PRE: PHY401

3

2

PHY 403

MATHEMATICAL METHODS OF PHYSICS I   PRE:MTH 201 & 204

3

1

PHY 404

MATHEMATICAL METHODS OF PHYSICS II  PRE: MTH304

3

2

PHY 407

COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS    PRE: MTH201

3

1

PHY 413

ANALYTICAL MECHANICS II  PRE: PHY 301

3

1

PHY 431

OPTICS II    PRE: PHY 331

3

1

PHY 443

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES & OPTICS  PRE: PHY 303

3

1

PHY 455

SUPERVISED INDEPENDENT RESEARCH (PROJECT WORK) (PRE:No lower courses of more than  12 units)

6

1&2

PHY 491

RESEARCH METHOD

2

1

PHY 497/498

EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS VI & VII   PRE: PHY 307/308

2

1 & 2

 

                        FOR D.E CANDIDATES

 

 

GST 101

USE OF ENGLISH

4

1,2

GST 102

PHILOSOPHY AND LOGIC

2

2

ELECTIVE COURSES

PHY 411

NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS I

2

1

PHY 412

NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS II     PRE: PHY411

2

2

PHY 423

SOLID STATE PHYSICS II   PRE: PHY 314

2

1

PHY 435

ACOUSTICS II    PRE: PHY 335

2

1

PHY 445

RELATIVITY & ELECTROMAGNETISM     PRE: PHY 303

2

1

PHY 461

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS      PRE: PHY 361

2

1

PHY 465

INSTRUMENTATION  & MEASUREMENT   PRE: PHY 361

2

2

PHY 466

COMMUNICATION & INFORMATION THEORY    PRE: PHY 361

2

2

PHY 484

ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICS II     PRE: PHY 381

2

2

PHY 434

BIOPHYSICS II    PRE: PHY 334

2

2

PHY 432

APPLIED OPTICS     PRE: PHY 331

2

1

PHY 433

PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS

2

1

PHY 424

ATOMIC & MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY

2

1

PHY 486

INTRODUCTION TO GEOPHYSICS II   PRE: PHY 383

2

2

COURSE CODE

COURSE NAME

CREDIT

SEMESTER

PHY 101M

GENERAL PHYSICS I (MECHANICS & PROPERTIES OF MATTER

3

1

PHY 102M

GENERAL PHYSICS II (THERMAL PHYSICS SOUND & OPTICS)

3

2

PHY 103M

GENERAL PHYSICS III (ELECTROMAGNETISM & MODERN PHYSICS)

3

1

PHY 104

BASIC PRACTICAL PHYSICS

2

1,2

PHY 101         General Physics: Mechanics (3 Units)

Space and time, Frames of reference.  Units and dimensions.  Kinematics; Fundamental laws of mechanics, Static and dynamics: Galilean invariance, Universal gravitation; Work and energy; Rotational dynamics and angular momentum: conservation Laws.

PHY 102         General Physics II: Electricity and Magnetism (3 units)

Electrostatics, conductors and currents: Dielectric: Magnetic fields and induction; Maxwell’s equation: Electromagnetic oscillations and waves; Applications.

PHY 103         General Physics III (3 Units)

Molecular treatment of the properties of matter.  Elasticity:  Hook’s Law Young’s shear. And bulk moduli. Hydrostatics: Pressure: Buoyancy:  Archimedes. Principle. Hydrodynamics:  Streamlines bernoullis and continuity equations;  turbulence: Reynold’s number. Viscosity; laminar flow; Poiseuille’s equation.  Surface tension; adhesion, cohesional capillarity; drops and bubbles.  Temperature; the zeroth law of thermodynamics; heat gas laws; laws of thermodynamics; kinetic theory of gases; Applications.

PHY 107         General Physics Laboratory (2 Units)

This introduction course emphasizes quantitative measurements, the treatment of measurement errors and graphical analysis.  Readings and repeated readings, best value, mistake, discrepancy. Readings and repeated readings, best value, mistake, discrepancy, systematic errors; Use of the mean reliability measurements. Accuracy and Precision.  A variety of experimental techniques in mechanics and properties of matter and heat will be employed.  The experiments include studies of meters, mechanical system, mechanical resonant system, heat, viscosity, and etc. covered in PHY 101 PHY 102 and PHY 103.

PHY 108         General Physics Laboratory II (2 Units)

A continuation of the treatment of experimental errors and analysis, mean square error, standard deviation.  Sample and set standard errors-meaning and uses.  Frequency distribution.  Histogram and frequency-data curve.  Least square errors and curve-fitting.  The experiments will cover topics in  waves and electricity involving the use of moving coil meters and the oscilloscope. 

 

PHYSICS FOR MEDICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE STUDENTS

 

PHY 101 (M)               Mechanics and Properties of (3 Units)

Dimensional analysis, Elements of statistics.  Vectors, Kinematics’ Dynamics of a point mass.  Laws of mechanics and gravitation, kepler’s Laws. Conservation laws, simple harmonic motion.  Elastic properties of solids.   Elastic properties of solids, moduli of elasticity.  Fluid mechanics and hydrodynamics.

PHY 102 (M)-  Thermal Physics Sound and Optics (3 Units).  

Zeroth law of thermodynamics, temperature, calorimetry.  Change of state, critical points.  Heat transfer, conduction, convection, radiation.  First and second law of thermodynamics, thermal energy.  Gas laws, Kinetic theory of gases.  Black body radiation.  Production of sound by vibrating solids, speed of sound in solids, liquids and gases; vibrating air, columns, intensity, pitch and quality, response of the ear to sound waves, interference of sound waves, Doppler effect.  Reflection at plane surfaces, absorption of light waves, spherical mirrors, thin lenses, combination of lenses, lens aberrations, optical instruments, resolving power of microscopes.

PHY 103 (M)               Electromagnetism and Modern Physics (3 Units)

Electrostatics, Coulomb’s law.  Gauss law simple applications, electric field, electrostatic potential.  Energy in electric field capacitance.  Insulators, conductors, dielectrics; polarization.  Electric current.  Ohm’s law, circuit analysis.  Thermo-electricity.  Magnetic effect of currents.  Ampere’s law of induction.  Alternating current.  AC circuits.  Measuring devices.  Motion of charged particles in electric and magnetic field.  Hall’s effect.  Radioactivity.  Conduction of electricity through gases e/m for electrons.  X-rays, nuclear energy.

PHY 104 (M)               Basic Practical Physics (2) Units)

The course content includes the experiments in PHY 107 & 108.

 

YEAR II

PHY 201         General Physics V:  Elementary Modern Physics (3 units).

                        Pre-requisite-PHY 102

Special relativity:  Defects in Newtonian mechanics: the speed of light; the Lorentz transformation; transformation of velocities.  Experimental basis of quantum theory; Black body radiation; electros and quanta; Bohr’s theory of atomic structure:  De Broglie hypothesis:  the uncertainty principle: Schrodinger’s equation and simple applications
 

PHY 202         Electric Circuit and Electronics I (3 units). Pre-requisite-PHY 102

DC Circuit; Kirchoff’s laws, sources of voltage and current.  Network analysis and circuit theorems – Thevenin, Norton and Millman.  AC Circuits Inductance, capacitance, the transformer, sinusoidal waveforms, rms and peak values, power in ac circuits. Impedance and Admittance, Series RLC circuits.  Q factors, resonance. Filters. Electronics; Semiconductors, doping, the p.n.-junction diode, other diode types (eg zener, tunnel, schottky - feature, operation, symbol and application. Bipolar junction transistors (npn and pnp), configuration, characteristics, operation, current circulation (adc and bdc) and equivalent circuits. Compare with thermionic valves. Single stage amplifiers. Field effect transistors (introduction).

PHY 204 General Physics V (3 units). Pre-requisite-PHY 101, PHY 102 and MTH 102.

Wave Phenomena:  the harmonic oscillator: vibration in strings, beat: waves on a string: energy in wave motion: Elementary treatment of waves, types and properties: longitudinal waves; standing waves: group ad phase velocity:  Propagation; intensity; phase and path difference.  Wave behaviour:  Reflection; reflection: Diffraction: Standing waves: Doppler effect.  Sound waves: Velocity and the effect of temperature: Beat:  Vibration in Strings:  Musical instruments: Resonance: Musical scale. Physics optics: spherical waves; interference and diffraction: thin films: crystal diffraction: holography; dispersion and light; reflection at a spherical surface thin lenses. Lens equation; optical lenses; mirrors and prisms; microscopes and telescopes, aberrations and correction.

PHY 205         Thermal Physics (3 units)  Pre-requisite-PHY 103

The foundation of classical thermodynamics including the zeroth law and definition of temperature; the first law, work heat and internal energy: Carnot cycle and the second law: entropy and irreversibility, thermodynamic potentials and the Maxwell relations.  Applications: Qualitative discussion of phase transitions, third law of thermodynamics: idea and real gases.  Elementary kinetic theory of gases including Boltzmann counting Maxwell-Boltzmann law of distribution of velocities, simple applications of the distribution law.

 

PHY 206         General Physics  VI: ENERGY RESOURCES(1 unit: Lectures 15hrs, Excursions)

Energy and Power: Energy Principles;  energy demands and out look. Transformation of energy and its costs; thermal pollution: Energy from fossil fuel, hydroelectric generation, solar power, geothermal power, tidal power and energy from biomass etc.  Promise, problems. costs, capacity, storage, reserves, efficiency and renewability.  Energy and environmental pollution and effects.

PHY 207         Experimental Physics I (1 unit) Pre-requisite-PHY 107

Laboratory experiments aimed at the practical applications of the theory of errors in measurement.  Fitting a straight line, computation errors, and two-dimensional errors.

PHY 208         Experimental Physics II (I unit) Pre-requisite – PHY 108

The laboratory course consists of a group experiments drawn from diverse areas of physics  (Optics, Electromagnetism.  Mechanics, Modern Physics etc). it is accompanied by seminar studies of standard experimental technique and the analysis of famous challenging experiments e.g.  Michelson’s  interferometer.  Photoelectric effect.  Millikan’s oil drop experiment.  Rutherford scattering etc.

 

PHY 211         Mechanics (3 Units)  Pre-requisite – PHY 101, MTH 103

Rigid body dynamics: moment of inertia, angular momentum, for use.  System of particles, moving coordinate system, non-martial reference frames.  Focoult’s pendulum.  Gravitation-gravitational field and potential.  Keplar’s Newton’s law of gravitation.  Applications of orbital motion.  Reduced mass, impulse, collision in one and 3-dimenisons.  System of varying mass, center of mass reference frames.  Bending of beams.

PHY 241         Electromagnetism (3 units)  Pre-requisite-PHY 102

General concepts-divergence, curl, gradient, divergence theorem.  Stoke’s theorem, introduction to curvilinear coordinate. Electric field-electrostatic field, potential and electric fields of discrete and continuous distribution of charge.  Dielectrics and  dielectric constant, polarization vector and charge, displacement vector, modified Gauss theorem.  Magnetic field-Lorentz force.  E/m,  velocity selector, cyclotron betatron.  Magnetic dipole moment.  Faraday’s law.  Ampere’s law.  Introduction to electromagnetic waves.

 

PHY 242         Electric Circuits & Electronics II (2 Units) Pre-requisite – PHY 102

Power supplies – stable dc from mains and a brief on solar power. Transformer (ideal and practical) – operation, types and applications. Rectification – halfwave and fullwave (centre tap and bridge), Regulation. Field effect transistors (n-channel and p-channel) JFET and MOSFET (mention of CMOS, HMOS, VMOS etc) enhancement and depletion mode - configuration, characteristics and operation. Compare BJT, FET and thermionic valves. UJT, SCR and Power FETs –features, operation and applications.  Feedback . Classify as PP, SP, PS and SS. Positive and negative feedback, effect of feedback on Av, Zin, Zo, and BW. Multistage amplifiers with feedback, coupling. Oscillators – RC, LC, Crystal and negative resistance oscillators (introduction), LC tank circuit. Operational amplifiers (OA) (ideal and practical), properties, features, operation and applications. OA with feedback loops.

Year III

PHY 301         Analytical Mechanics I (3 Units) Pre-requisite- MTH 201 and MTH 204

Newtonian mechanics; option of a particle in one, two and three dimensions; system of particles and collision theory; Newtonian gravitation; conservative forces and potentials, oscillations, central force problems; Moving coordinates, accelerated frames of reference; rigid body dynamics; generalized motion; mechanics of continuous media.

 

PHY 303  Electricity and Magnetism (3 units)Pre-requisite-PHY 101 and MTH 204

Electrostatics and magnetostatics – electric polarization, dielectric  susceptibility, image charges. Laplace’s equations.  Poisson, equation and boundary value problems, electromagnetic potentials, multiple expansions, dielectric and magnetic materials.  Faraday’s law, Ampere’s law. AC circuits.  Lorentz covariance and special relativity.  Current density vector.  Electromotive force, law of induction.  Continuity and surface charge density.

 

PHY305          Quantum Physics(3 units) Pre-requisites – PHY 201

Wave – particle duality and uncertainty principle, De Broiglie’s hypothesis. Born’s interpretation of matter waves, Davisson-Germer experiment. Basic principles of quantum theory, Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Single harmonic oscillator, energy levels in potential wells, the Schrödinger wave equation, reflection and transmission of potential barriers. Atomic and molecular structure of spectra. Nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, fission, fusion and magnetic resonance. Elementary particles.

 

PHY 306         Statistical and Thermal Physics (3 units) Pre-requisites- PHY 205

Fundamental statistics Maxwell- Boltzman’s law of distribution of velocities and application. Bose-Einstein distribution and application. Fermi-Dirac distribution and applications. Partition function and applications. Fluctuations and elements of low temperature Physics.

 

PHY 309         General Physics VI (Energy and Environment) (I unit)

Renewable energy systems (Solar wind and biomass) and their utilization, solar energy technology-applications for rural development, solar stills, solar dryers, solar cockers, solar cooling and heating.  Solar cells and photovoltaic systems.  Contribution of energy generation processes to environmental pollution and safe-guards.

 

PHY 322 Vector and Tensor Analysis (3 units) Pre-requisite-MTH 201 and MTH 203

Vector algebra, vector dot and cross products, Equations of curves and surfaces.  Vector differentiation and applications.  Gradient, Divergence and curl.  Vector integration; line surface and volume integrals Green’s, Stoke’s and divergence theorems.  Tensor products of vector spaces.  Tensor algebra, Symmetry, Cartesian tensors.

PHY 314         Solid State Physics (3 units)  Pre-requisite – PHY 305

Crystal structure and crystal binding.  Lattice properties, indexing, crystal diffraction,  Laue equations, reciprocal lattice, Brillioun zones, structure fctor.  Interatomic forces bonding types.  Elastic properties; lattice vibrations elastic waves, dynamics of momentum, and diatomic lattice phonons and inelastic neutron scattering, phonon dispersion, theories of the specific heat of solid, thermal conductivity.  Imperfection in solids defect statistics, diffusion, ionic conductivity, colour centers, amporphous solids, dislocation and strength of materials.  Free electrons of metals, energy wave vector relations.  Fermi surface and Fermi energy cyclotron resonance.  Hall effect optical properties of metals, thermionic and field emissions.

 

PHY 395         SIWES:  Industrial Attachment (15 UNITS)

Three months of supervised training in an approved industrial, technological or research establishment.

 

300 LEVEL ELECTIVE COURSES

PHY 334         Biophysics I (2 units)

X-ray diffraction and Electron microscopy elements of the physics of macromolecules.  Basic enzyme behaviour.  Radiation biophysics.  Radiation hazards and protection

 

PHY 363         Electronic Materials (2 units)

Monocrystalline and Technical Material.  Semi-conducting materials, dielectric materials.  Metallic conductors, plastics.

 

PHY 364         Electronic Device and Device Manufacture (2 units)

Semiconductor and IC fabrication methods. Electron and hole mobility and diffusion. Packaging techniques. Physical limitations of electronic devices. Comparison of bipolar and unipolar solid state devices.  Growth of crystals.

 

PHY 335         Acoustics I (2 units)

Propagation and attenuation of sound in the atmosphere.  Sound solution and absorption.  Reverberation.  Sabine and Eyring’s formular.  Hearing articulation and intelligibility.  Acoustics of auditoria models anechoic rooms and water tanks.  Acoustics of small rooms.  Noise-problems and abatement.

 

PHY 392         Engineering Drawing (2 units)

Plane geometry orthographic and isometric projections sectional views sketching professional touches.

 

PHY 393         Workshop Practice (2 units)

Introduction to workshop equipment and their use in fabricating simple tools.

 

PHY 331         Optics I (2 units)

Maxwell’s equation and their solution, multiple interferometry production of polarize light dichronism.  Faraday-effect, ke. Effect, photoelasticity.

 

PHY 361         Electronics I (2 units)

Transistor – biasing, characteristics and load line. Biasing methods – advantages and disadvantages. Multistage amplifiers. DC amplifiers (Darlington pair, difference amplifier and chopper amplifier) - features, operation and applications.  Power amplifiers - Class A, AB, B, and C. Efficiency of class B. Basic amplifier circuit design, features, operation and applications.  Frequency response and bode plots of ac and dc amplifiers. Small signal amplifiers and hybrid (h) parameters. Oscillators – Phase shift, Wien bridge, Hartley, Colpitt and Crystal (Pierce, Miller etc) oscillators. LC tank circuit. Relaxation oscillators – astable, monostable and bistable multivibrators (basic circuit, features, operation and applications.). Transistors, OAs and diodes in switching circuits – TTL, DTL etc.  

 

PHY 381         Atmospheric Physics I (2 units)

General Features of the Earth’s Atmosphere – Origin and composition, Atmospheres of other Planets.  Layers of the Earth’s Atmosphere and their characteristics – Temperature distribution, charged particles effects and the fair weather electric field.

Atmospheric Thermodynamics – Ideal gas laws, virtual temperature, hydrostatic equation, geopotential and the geopotential height, potential temperature, saturated adiabatic and pseudo-a diabatic processes.  Water vapour in the air, static stability.

Atmospheric Dynamics – Coordinate systems, Apparent forces, Real forces, friction, geostrophic wind, vertical equation of motion.  Thermodynamic Energy equation.  The continuity equation.

 

PHY 383 INTRODUCTION TO GEOPHYSICS I (2 units)

Limitations of geophysical exploration methods.  Potential field geophysics (gravity and magnetic) methods: Concepts, field equipments, data acquisition, interpretation and uses.  Spontaneous potential (SP) and Electrical Resistivity (ER) methods; current density and conductivity of rocks, potential distribution in homogenous earth, apparent resistivity, ER field equipments, data acquisition and data interpretation.

 

Year IV

PHY 401         Quantum Mechanics I (3 units) Pre-requisites- PHY 305 and MTH 202

The formulation of Quantum mechanics in terms of state vectors and linear operations.  Three dimensional spherical symmetric potentials.  The theory of angular momentum and spin.  Identical particles an the exclusion principle.  Methods of approximation.  Multi-electron atoms.  (Details):  Linear operators. Eigenvectors and eigenvalues.  Ket and bra spaces, scalar products operators and their matrix representation.  Averages transformation values, adjoint operators, self-adjoint operators, and commutation relations.  Theory of angular momentum.  Orbital and spin momentum.  Eigenspectra of 12 and Jz.  Coupling of angular momentum.  Hydrogen atom-solution of radial equation and energy levels.  Seeman effect.  Spin-orbit interactions.  Simultaneous Eigenvalues of J2     Jz and L2      .Three dimension spherically symmetric potentials.  Approximation methods-Bound state perturbation theory-non-degenerate and degenerate.  Stark feet WKB or quasi-classical approximation variational techniques.  Application Identical particles and the exclusion principle.  Multielectron atom.  .

 

PHY 402  Quantum Mechanics II (3 units) Pre-requisite PHY 401 and MTH 202

Time independent and time dependent perturbation theory.  Scattering theory: elastic potential scattering; Green’s function and partial wave methods.  Selected phenomena from each of atomic physics, molecular physics, solid state physics and nuclear physics are described and then interpreted using quantum mechanical models.

 

PHY 403/404 Mathematical Methods in Physics (6 units)Pre-requisite-MTH     202,  MTH 204 and MTH 304

Linear algebra and functional analysis; transformation in linear vector spaces and matrix theory. Hilbert space and complete sets of orthogonal functions, special functions of mathematical physics.  The gamma functions; hypergeometric functions legendre functions; Bessel functions, Hermite and Languerre functions, the Dirac delta functions, Integral transforms and Fourier series; Fourier series and Fourier transforms, Laplace transforms, Application of transform methods to the solution of elementary differential equations of interest in physics and Engineering.  Partial differential equations; Solution of boundary value problems of partial differential equations by various methods which include; separation of variables; the method of integral transforms.  Sturn-Liouville theory; uniqueness of solutions.  Calculus of residues and applications to evaluation of integrals and summation of series.  Applications to various physical situations which may include-electromagnetic theory, quantum theory, diffusion phenomena.

PHY 407-Computational Physics (3 units)  Pre-requisite- MHH 201

Ordinary differential equations and applications, general expansion of physical quantities in complete orthogonal set of functions.  Use of numerical methods in physics; various methods of numerical integration, differentiation. Numerical solutions of some differential equations in physics, statistical analysis of experimental data.

PHY 413         Analytical Mechanics II (3 units Pre-requisite – PHY 301

Degree of freedom, generalized coordinates; Lagrange’s formulations of mechanics, Applications.  The calculus of variation and the action transformations.  Applications.  Invariance and conservation laws.  Oscillatory systems including damped, forced and coupled oscillations:  Normal modes.

 

PHY 443         Electromagnetic Waves and Optics (2 units) Prerequisite PHY 303

Maxwell’s equations and their applications.  Waves in space and in dielectric and conducting media.  The wave equation, propagation of plane, cylindrical and spherical waves.  Reflection and refraction.  Transmission lines, wave guides and resonant cavities; Radiation of em waves in space, Interference of waves.  Diffraction, Interferometery, production of polarized light, dichroism, Faraday effect, photo elasticity.  Propagation in ionized media.

PHY 455         Supervised Individual Research (6 units)

The course offers students the opportunity to do research in contemporary physics and under the supervision of staff.  The early part of the course will involve assignments on the application of PHY 307.  The student will be required to preset seminars and a detailed report on the research is presented by the student when the project is completed.

400 LEVEL ELECTIVES

PHY 411         Nuclear and Particle Physics I  (2 units) Pre-requisite-PHY 305

Nuclear concepts. Nuclear structure, Nuclear properties, nuclear size, nuclear masses; nuclear forces, nuclear-nucleon scattering; the deuteron.  Nuclear models.  Radioactive decay:  Alpha, beta gamma decays.  Nuclear reactions.  Nuclear reactions and properties of the neutron-cross-sections.  Principles of nuclear reactor.  High energy nuclear physics.

 

PHY 412         Nuclear and Particles Physics II (2 units) Pre-requisite-PHY 401

Radioactivity, detectors of nuclear radiation.  Nuclear instrumentation and radiation detection techniques; detectors.  Radiation hazards, nuclear spectroscopy.  Neutronphysics, production, detection of neutrons, Fission and fusion.  Nuclear reactor and nuclear energy.  Elementary particles; conservation laws.  Particle classification.  Strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions.  Resonances Application of nuclear techniques; activation analysis.

 

PHY 431         Optics II (2 units)

The physical basis of modern optics, stimulated emission of radiation, population inversion, resonance cavities lasers.

 

PHY 432         Applied Optics (2 units)

Imaging system as a linear system, convolution integral.  Wiener Kinnchin Theorem, information processing.

 

PHY 433         Physiological Optics (2 units)

The visual pathways the mechanism of visual performance for colour, electrophysiological analysis of visual performance.

PHY 434         Biophysics II (2 units)

Salt and water transport in the gut. Bioengineering: application of different engineering science to medicine. Imaging techniques: X-ray technique, Radio isotope imaging, Tomography, Ultrasonic methods, magnetic measurements, electric measurements. The origin of living matter.

PHY 423         Solid State Physics II (2 units)  Pre-requisite-PHY 401

Dielectric properties.  Magnetism  Paramagnetism and diamagnetism; Ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism  Magnetic resonance.  Imperfection in solids.  Density of States, Bloch’s theories, Kronig-Penney model, E.K diagram, photo-conductivity superconductivity.

PHY 424         Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy (2 unit)Pre-requisite – PHY 402

The hydrogen atom; relativistic effects and spin.  Identical articles and symmetry.  Many electron atoms.  Coupling schemes and vector model.  See man effect Hyperfine structure.  The diatomic molecule; the Frank-Condon principle.  X-ray diffraction.  Microwave methods.  Resonance phenomena; ESR, NMR and optical pumping and Mossbauer scattering.  General concepts of spectroscopy for NQ, ESR infrared and Raman spectroscopy.

 

PHY 435         Acoustics  (2 units)  

Introduction to non-destructive testing (NDT): Cost saving in NDT. Detection of surface defects – use of liquid penetrants, magnetic particles, etchants and surface acoustic waves.  Detection of internal flaws – x-rays, acoustic imaging and MRI.

Introduction to underwater acoustic: Factors affecting sound velocity in seawater. Sound paths in velocity gradients. Sound shadows and sound channels. Layer effects.

 

PHY 461         Digital Electronics (2 units)

Number representation in binary octal, hexadecimal and denary. Codes - BCD, Hamming, Gray. Parity check and alphanumeric. Conversion between gates. Basic logic equations and Boolean algebra. Karnaugh mapping. Basic logic gates, truth tables. Logic design and realization. Flip-flops, counters and shift registers. Digital logic families. Memory devices and backups – primary and secondary.

 

PHY 465         Instrumentation and Measurement System (2 units.)

Basic circuit models, filters, modulators, display and storage building blocks, transducers and their applications noise in measuring system measurement.

 

PHY 466         Communication and Information Theory (2 units)

Radiowave propagation – ground, sky and space waves. Basic transmitter operation using block schematic. Superheterodyne and straight receiver operation using block schematic. FM transmission and reception. Aerials (Yaggi-Uda, dipole and wire) – sketches, features and properties. Signal transmission and Poyntin vector. AM modulation. FM modulation. Digital modulation. Ionosphere. Noise. Satellite and radar systems, Optic fiber.  introduction to and.

 

PHY 467         Microwave Devices (2 units)

Microwave solid state devices – tunnel, varactor, gunn, impatt, trapatt etc. Microwave vacuum tube devices. Klystron, magnetrons. Waveguides and modes of operation.  Travelling wave tube. Propagation, noise/distortion and interference at microwave frequencies. Phase and group delays. Microwave antennas. Parabolic dish, helix, lens etc Features and operation of dish aerial. Detection of microwave signals. Foster-Seeley discriminator and the ratio or slope detector.  microwave signal propagation and Poyntin vector.

 

PHY 484         Atmospheric Physics II (2 units)

Atmospheric Electricity, Aerosol and Cloud microphysical processes, Radiative Transfer Global Energy Balance.

 

PHY 486         Introduction to Geophysics II (2units)

Solid earth physics, terrestrial magnetism, oceanography (related field include: geodesy volcanology, seismic studies, gravity and magnetic studies earthquakes and plate tectonics). Induced Polarization, self potential and electromagnetic methods: concepts, field equipments, data acquisition, interpretation and uses.  Seismic exploration: concepts, field equipments, data acquisition, interpretation and uses.