Department of Microbiology

 

HISTORY OF THE DEPARTMENT





The Department of Microbiology was established during the 1997/1998 Academic Session after due approval by both the Senate of the University of Jos and the National Universities Commission (NUC). At inception, the Department was overseen by Professor C. I. C. Ogbonna, the then Head of the Department of Botany.  In March, 1999, Professor S. A. Garba was appointed as its pioneer Head of Department and remained so until January 2001 when Dr. K.B. Tanyigna was appointed to succeed him. On August 14, 2003, Dr. J. D. Mawak was appointed to succeed Dr. K. B. Tanyigna first as Coordinator following the appointment of the later as the Rector, Nasarawa Polytechnic, Lafia. He was reappointed as Head of Department in September 2006. In July 2008 Dr. Patricia M. Lar was appointed as Coordinator. She remained so until September 2010 when Dr. J. D. Mawak was again appointed as Acting Head of Department. Dr. P. M. Lar returned again as Acting Head of Department in December 2012 a position she held up to 9th January, 2017 when she handed over to Dr. O.J. Egbere as the first elected Head of Department after a successful election on the 20th December, 2016.

The primary objective of the Department is to train under graduates and postgraduate students in Microbiology. The Department started with a student intake of 35 and has graduated thirteen (13) sets of the B.Sc. Microbiology students totalling about 1000 graduands during the 2001/2002, 2002/2003, 2003/2004, 2004/2005, 2005/2006, 2006/2007, 2007/2008, 2008/2009, 2010/2011, 2011/2012, 2012/2013, 2013/2014 and 2015/2016 sessions.

Philosophy: The philosophy of the Department of Microbiology is to train competent, disciplined and innovative personnel for the ever-increasing demands in private and public establishments such as Industries, Medical Establishments, Agricultural Sectors, Water Resources and Environmental Protection and Food Regulatory Agencies and also identify human problems and design solutions to them.

Vision: The vision of the Department of Microbiology is to excel in teaching and research such that our graduates can compete globally.

Objectives:To offer programmes in Microbiology and Biotechnology leading to the award of Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.), higher degrees and Postgraduate Diplomas to meet national needs.

  1. To produce microbiologists with innovative and entrepreneurial skills.
  2. To collaborate with relevant industries, research institutes and international agencies for support and encouragement of high standard research, training towards  achieving objectives i and ii.
  3. To promote dissemination of research findings both locally and internationally.
  4. To develop and employ new and appropriate approaches to teaching, learning and assessment that meet the needs of the students.
  5. To promote the training and retraining of staff under favourable working environment.
  6. To train qualified microbiologists who will assist in the development, planning and implementation of Science and Technology policies for the country. 

U.T.M.E. (University Tertiary Matriculation Examination) Entry Requirements: Candidates should possess 5 Credit passes at GCE ‘O’ Level or SSCE which must include Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry, Physics and English at not more than 2 sittings. U.T.M.E. Subjects: English Language, Biology, Chemistry and either Physics or Mathematics.

 

Direct Entry:

  1. G.C.E. ‘A’ Level or equivalent with a minimum of Two relevant Science subjects.  
  2. FIVE G.C.E. ‘O’ Level credits or equivalent including Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry, Physics and English at not more than 2 sittings.

Course Outline


S/NO

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT UNITS

SEMESTER

1

BIO 101

General Biology I

4

1ST

2

CHM 101

Physical Chemistry I

3

1ST

3

CHM 103

Practical Physical Chemistry I

1

1ST

4

CS 101

Introduction to Computer Science

2

1ST

5

MTH 101

Elementary Mathematics I – Algebra & Trigonometry

3

1ST

6

PHY 101 (M)

General Physics I

3

1ST

7

PHY 104

Practical Physics

2

1ST

8

GST 101

Use of English

4

2ND

9

GST 102

Philosophy and Logic

2

2ND

10

GST 103

Nigerian People and Culture

2

1ST

11

GST 104

History and Philosophy of Science

2

1ST

12

BIO 102

General Biology II

4

2ND

13

CHM 102

Organic Chemistry I

3

2ND

14

CHM 104

Practical Organic Chemistry I

1

2ND

15

CHM 105

Inorganic Chemistry

3

2ND

16

CHM 106

Practical Inorganic Chemistry

1

2ND

17

MCB 101

Introduction to Microbiology

2

2ND

18

MTH 103

Elementary Mathematics III – Calculus

3

2ND

19

BIO 105

Practical Biology

3

2ND

 

TOTAL

 

48

 




S/NO

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT UNITS

SEMESTER

1

MCB 201

General Microbiology I

3

1st

2

MCB 202

Principles of Staining

1

1st

3

BIO 201

Genetics I

2

1st

4

CS 201

Computer Programming I

4

1st

5

CHM 210

Physical Chemistry II

2

1st

6

CHM 211

Organic Chemistry II

3

1st

7

MCB 203

General Microbiology II

3

2nd

8

MCB 204

Principles of Sterilization, Disinfection & Chemotheraphy

2

2nd

9

BCHM 203

Chemistry of Amino acids and Proteins

2

1st

10

BCHM 204

Chemistry of Carbohydrates, Lipids and Nucleic acids

2

2nd

11

BCHM 205

General Biochemistry Laboratory I

1

1st

12

BCHM 206

General Biochemistry Laboratory II

1

2nd

13

BIO 203

General Physiology I

2

2nd

14

STABIO 202

Statistics for Biological Science

4

2nd

15

CHM 212

Inorganic Chemistry II

2

2nd

16

CHM 213

Analytical Chemistry I

2

2nd

17

GST 222

Peace and Conflict Resolution Studies

2

2nd

18

GST 223

Entrepreneurship

2

1st

 

TOTAL

 

40

 

 

ELECTIVES

   

 

1

BCHM 202

Structure and Functions of Major Cell Components

2

1

2

BIO 202

Introductory Ecology

2

2

3

BIO 204

Biological Techniques

2

1

4

BIO 205

Introductory Developmental Cell Biology

3

2

5

MGS 201

Principles of Management

4

1

S/NO

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT UNITS

SEMESTER

1

MCB 301

Microbial Genetics & Molecular Biology

3

1ST

2

MCB 302

Microbial Physiology & Metabolism

3

1ST

3

MCB 303

Bacteriology

2

1ST

4

MCB 304

Virology

2

1ST

5

MCB 305

Microbial Ecology

2

1ST

6

MCB 306

Soil Microbiology

2

1ST

7

MCB 307

Mycology

3

1ST

8

MCB 308

Pathogenic Microbiology

2

1ST

9

MCB 309

Microbiological Techniques

3

1ST

10

MCB 310

Parasitology I

2

1ST

11

BCHM 301

Enzymology

3

1ST

12

MCB 399

Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme

6

2ND

 

TOTAL

 

33

 
 

ELECTIVES

     

1

BCHM 308

Food Biochemistry

2

2ND

2

BOT 305

Industrial Mycology

3

1ST

3

CS 301

Application of Computers in Sciences

3

2ND

4

ZOO 304

Animal Behaviour

2

2ND

 

 

S/NO

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

CREDIT UNITS

SEMESTER

1

MCB 401

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

3

1ST

2

MCB 402

Research Project

6

1ST & 2ND

3

MCB 403

Industrial Microbiology

4

1ST

4

MCB 404

Principles of Epidemiology and Public Health

3

1ST

5

MCB 405

Principles of Genetic Engineering

3

        1ST

6

MCB 410

Parasitology II

2

1ST

7

MCB 412

Environmental Microbiology

2

1ST

8

MCB 413

Food Microbiology

2

1ST

9

MCB 414

Fermentation Microbiology/Technology

2

1ST

10

MCB 406

Analytical Microbiology & Quality Control

3

2ND

11

MCB 407

Seminar

2

2ND

12

MCB 408

Petroleum Microbiology

3

2ND

13

MCB 409

Toxicology

3

2ND

14

MCB 411

Immunology and Immunochemistry

4

2ND

15

MCB 415

Field Trip

1

2ND

 

TOTAL

 

43

 
 

ELECTIVES

     

1

MCB 416

Agricultural Microbiology

3

1ST

2

MCB 417

Developmental Microbiology

2

1ST

3

MCB 418

Analytical Food Microbiology

2

2ND

4

MCB 420

Economic Microbiology

2

2ND

100 LEVEL COURSE CONTENT                                                                             

 

MCB 101: Introduction to Microbiology    2 credit units                                                     

 

1.1 History and Development of Microbiology.                                                                     

1.1.1 The Spontaneous Generation Theory.                                                                           

1.1.2 The Discovery of the Role of Microorganisms in Transformation of Organic Matter.

1.1.3 The Discovery of the Role of Microorganism in the Causation of Disease.                     

1.2             Microorganisms as Geochemical Agents.                                                                      

1.3    The Growth of Microbiology in the Twentieth Century.                                                

1.4    Theory of the Cause of Disease.                                                                                    

1.5    Pure Culture and Media.                                                                                               

1.6    Control of microorganisms.                                                                                           

1.6.1 Physical methods (Moist heat, filtration, radiation etc)                                                   

1.6.2 Chemical agents (Disinfectants, antiseptics etc).                                                             

1.6.3 Principles of Sterilization.                                                                                              

1.7    Fundamental Principles of Life.

1.8    e-microbiology                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                            

200 LEVEL COURSE CONTENT

200L COURSE CONTENT

 

MCB 201: General Microbiology I               3 credit units

 

2.1    Prokaryotic cell structure and function.

2.1.1 Prokaryotic cell membranes – plasma membranes and internal membrane

         systems.

2.1.2 Cytoplasmic matrix – Inclusion bodies, ribosome.

2.1.3 Bacterial chromosome and plasmids – source of information.

2.1.4 Cell Wall.

2.1.5 Components external to cell wall – Capsule, Slime Layer, S Layer, Pili,

         Fimbriae, Flagella

2.1.6 Bacterial endospores and their formation.

2.2 Overview of Eucaryotic cell structure and Function.

2.2.1 The cytoplasmic matrix, microfilaments, Intermediate filaments and

         microtubules

2.2.2 Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus

2.2.3 Lysosomes and Endocytosis

2.8.4 Eucaryotic ribosomes, Mitochondria and Chloroplasts

2.2.5 Nucleus, Nucleolus, Cell division, Mitosis and Meiosis

2.2.6 External cell coverings.

2.3   Comparision between Procaryotic and Eucaryotic cell                                                                 

2.4   Morphology, Life cycles and Economic Importance of Bacteria,

        Fungi, Protozoa, Algae and Viruses.                                                                               

2.5  Principles of Microbial Taxonomy with Particular Reference to Bacteria.                         

2.6  Nutritional requirements – Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen,

       Phosphorus, Sulfur and growth factors.

2.6.1 Nutritional types of microorganisms.

2.6.2 Nutrient uptake mechanisms.

2.6.3 Types of Culture media with examples.

2.7 Isolation of microorganisms and pure culture techniques.

2.8 Preservation of microorganisms.

2.9 Microbial Growth.

2.9.1 Definition of growth, Mathematical Expression, Growth curve

2.9.2 Measurement of growth (a) Direct microscopic count – Breed’s Petroff – Hausser

         counting chamber, Haemocytometer. (b) Viable count – Spread plate and Pour plate

         technique (c) Measurements of cell consituents. (d) Turbidity measurements –

         Nephelometer and spectrophotometer techniques (e) Measurements of cell constituents.

2.9.3 Synchronous growth, Continuous growth (Chemostat and Turbidostat)

2.9.4 Growth yield.

2.9.5 Influence of environmental factors on growth.

2.9.6 Microbial growth in natural environment.

2.9.7 Counting viable non-culturable organisms-Quorum sensing techniques.

                                                                                                                                            

MCB 202: Principles of Microscopy and Laboratory Practice       2 Credit units                            

2.1 Principles and Application of Microscopy.                                                                       

2.2 Staining Techniques, Dyes and Stains used in Microbiology.                                           

2.3 Reactions of various dyes and Stains used in Microbiology.                                             

2.4 Reactions of various dyes and Stains with Cellular Components.                                      

2.5 Application of Stains in an Identification Procedure.

2.6 Safety in Microbiology Laboratory.                                                                                  

                                                                                                                                            

MCB 203: General Microbiology II     3 Credit units                                                          

 

2.1 Transfer and Change of Genetic Information in Bacteria - Transduction, Transformation &

      Conjugation; plasmid.                                                                                                     

2.2 Microorganisms and Human Diseases.                                                                              

2.3 Some Common Infectious Diseases.                                                                                 

2.4 Elements of Immunology.                                                                                                

2.5 Microbiology of Soil, water, food and dairy products.                                                      

2.6 Industrial Fermentations.                                                                                                  

2.7 Symbiosis.

2.8 Role of microorganisms in Biomass and Bioenergy Technology.                                                                          

MCB 204: Principles of Sterilization, Disinfection and Chemotherapy   2 Credit units

2.1 Control of Microorganisms.

2.1.1 Definitions of frequently used terms.

2.1.2 Physical methods of Control of Microorganisms (a) Heat : Moist & Dry heat (b) Low

         temperature (c) Filtration (d) High pressure (e) Desiccation (F) Osmotic pressure

        (g) Radiations.

2.1.3 Chemical methods of Microbial Control (a) Phenolics (b) Biguanides- Chlorohexidine

        (c) Alcohols d) Halogens (e) Heavy Metals (f) Quaternary ammonium compounds

        (g) Surface active agents (h) Aldehydes (i) Sterilising gases (j) Peroxygens

     (k) Chemotherapeutic agents.

2.2 Evaluation of effectiveness of Antimicrobial agents.

2.3 A Review of Methods Used for Sterilization and Disinfection.                                          

2.3.1 Definitions.                                                                                                                   

2.3.2 Criteria of Viability.                                                                                                      

2.3.3 Exponential Kinetics.                                                                                                   

2.3.4 Physical and Chemical Agents for Control of Microorganisms.                                      

2.3.5 Inactivation of Viruses.                                                                                                 

2.4    Classification, Description and the Action of Chemotherapeutic Agents.                       

2.4.1 Antibiotics that inhibit bacterial cell wall Formation (Penicillins and cephalosporins,

         cycloserine, vancomycin, bacitracin).                                                                            

2.4.2 Inhibitors of larger 30s ribosomal subunit (streptomycin, neomycin, kanamycin, gentamycin).

2.4.3 Inhibitors of larger 50s ribosomal subunit (Chloramphenicol, erythromycin, lincomycin).

2.4.4 Antibiotics that inhibit Nucleic acid synthesis (Rifamycins, actinomycins, nalidixic acid).

2.4.5 Antibiotics that damage cell membranes (Amphotericin B, nystatin, polymyxins).         

2.4.6 Antimetabolites (Salphonamides, Isoniazid, Paraminosalicylic acid).                              

2.5   Antiviral agents                                                                                                              

2.6   Antifungal Agents.                                                                                                         

2.7   Antitprotozoal Agents.                                                                                                   

2.8   Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics.                                                                                  

 

 

300 LEVEL COURSE CONTENT

 

MCB 301: Microbial Genetics and Molecular Biology       3 Credit units                           

 

3.1 Basic Concepts & Development of Microbial Genetics.                                                    

3.2 Chemical and Physical Basis of Heredity.                                                                         

3.3 Bacterial Chromosomes.                                                                                                  

3.4 Nucleic Acids.                                                                                                                 

3.4.1 DNA Structure.                                                                                                             

3.4.2 Characteristics of DNA & RNA.                                                                                    

3.4.3 DNA Replication.                                                                                                         

3.5 The Genetic Code.                                                                                                           

3.5.1 Establishment of the Code.                                                                                           

3.5.2 Organization of the Code.                                                                                             

3.6 Gene Expression.

3.6.1 Transcription.

3.6.2 Translation.                                                                                                                   

3.7 Regulation of Gene Expression.                                                                                       

3.8 Mutation.

3.8.1 Spontaneous.

3.8.2 Induced Mutations.                                                                                                       

3.8.3 Detection & Isolation of mutants.                                                                                  

3.8.4 DNA Repair - Excission repair, Removal of lessions, Postreplication repair,                   

         Recombination repair and SOS repair.                                                                           

3.9   Bacterial Recombinations - Conjugation, Transformation and Transduction.                  

3.10 Recombinant DNA Technology                                                                                    

3.10.1 Historical Perspectives.                                                                                                

3.10.2 Restriction Enzymes.                                                                                                  

3.10.3 Preparation of Recombinant DNA.                                                                              

3.10.4 The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).                                                                      

3.10.5 DNA Probes.                                                                                                               

3.10.6 Primers.                                                                                                                       

3.10.7 Cloning Vectors.                                                                                                         

3.10.8 Isolating & Purifying Cloned DNA.                                                                            

3.11 Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology.                                                           

3.11.1 Medical Applications.                                                                                                 

3.11.2 Industrial Applications.                                                                                               

3.11.3 Agricultural Applications.                                                                                           

3.11.4 Social Impacts of Recombinant DNA Technology.                                                     

                                                                                                                                            

MCB 302: Microbial Physiology and Metabolism     3 Credit units.                                   

 

3.1 The Nature of the Microbial World.                                                                                  

3.2 Common properties of biological systems.                                                                       

3.3 Eucaryotes and Procaryotes.                                                                                             

3.3.1 Organization and function in the Eucaryotic cell.                                                          

3.3.2 Organization and function in the Procaryotic cell.                                                          

3.3.3 Differences between Eucaryotes and Procaryotes.                                                           

3.3.4 Special procaryotic organelles.                                                                                      

3.3.5 Procaryotic cellular reserve materials.                                                                             

3.3.6 Chemostactic behaviour of motile bacteria.                                                                   

3.4 Microbial Metabolism.                                                                                                     

3.4.1 Energy production (Catabolism)                                                                                     

3.4.2 Source of energy/modes of ATP generating metabolism.                                               

3.4.3 ATP generation by heterotrophs.                                                                                    

3.4.4 Fermentation.                                                                                                                

3.4.5 Special pathways for attack on organic compounds by microorganisms.                        

3.4.6 Oxidation of inorganic compounds.                                                                              

3.5 Biosynthesis (Anabolism)                                                                                                 

3.5.1 Methods of studying biosynthesis.                                                                                  

3.5.2 The assimilation of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur.                                                          

3.5.3 Interconnections between catabolic and biosynthetic pathways.                                     

3.5.4 Anaplerotic pathways.                                                                                                   

3.5.5 Photosynthesis.                                                                                                             

3.5.6- Monomer synthesis (monosaccharides, nucleotides, amino acids, fatty acids etc).          

3.5.7 Polymer synthesis (DNA, RNA, proteins, polysaccharides and cell wall compounds).

3.6 Regulation of Metabolism.                                                                                               

3.6.1 Basis of regulation.                                                                                                       

3.6.2 Patterns of regulation.                                                                                                    

3.6.3 Regulation of enzyme synthesis.                                                                                    

3.6.4 Regulation of DNA synthesis and cell division.                                                             

3.6.5 Regulation of RNA synthesis.                                                                                       

3.7 Microbial Growth.                                                                                                            

3.7.1 Definition of growth.                                                                                                     

3.7.2 Mathematical nature and expression of growth.                                                             

3.7.3 The measurement of growth/ Kinetics.                                                                           

3.7.4 The efficiency of growth: growth yield.                                                                         

3.7.5 Synchronous growth.                                                                                                    

3.7.6 Effect of nutrient concentration on growth rates.                                                            

3.7.7 Continous culture/Theory of chemostat.                                                                        

3.7.8 Maintenance energy.                                                                                                     

3.7.9 Effects of Environmental Factors on Microbial Growth & Metabolism (Solutes,Temperature, Oxygen etc).                                                             

3.8   Nutrition in Microorganisms.                                                                                          

3.8.1 Photosynthetic Procaryotes - Functional properties of photosynthetic procaryotes, the blue green bacteria, the purple bacteria, the green bacteria, the halobacterium and its relations to light.                                                  

3.8.2 Chemoautotrophs and Chemoheterotrophs.                                                                   

3.8.3 Symbiosis (Types, functions, establishment and evolution).                                           

 

MCB 303: Systematic Bacteriology    2 Credit units.                                                            

 

3.1 Introduction - General aspects of bacterial pathogenesis.                                                   

3.2 Staphylococcus and Related organisms                                                                            

3.3 Streptococcus species

3.3.1 Group A Streptococcus.

3.3.2 Group B Streptococcus.

3.3.3 Viridans Streptococci.

3.3.4 Streptococcus pneumoniae.                                                                                          

3.4 Neisseriae.                                                                                                                       

3.5 Mycobacteria.                                                                                                                  

3.6  Zoonotic diseases.

3.6.1 Brucellosis.

3.6.2 Tularemia.

3.6.3 Yersiniosis.

3.6.4 Listeriosis.

3.6.5 Anthrax.                                                                                                                       

3.7 Anaerobes.                                                                                                                       

3.8 Corynebacteria and Legionellae.                                                                                      

3.9 Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio, Campylobacter and Helicobacter                                           

3.10 Spirochaetes (Treponema, Borrelia and Leptospira).                                                       

                                                                                                                                            

MCB 304: Virology          2 Credit units.                                                                             

 

3.1 Definition, History of Virology, Characteristics of Viruses, Origin of Viruses.                    

3.2 Nature and Structure of Viruses.                                                                                        

3.3 Cultivation (Propagation) of Viruses.

3.3.1Detection of Viral Growth.

3.3.2 Purification of Virus.

3.4 Particles Assay (Quantification) of Viral Suspension.                                                                      

3.5 Viral Replication, Abnormal Replication Cycles.                                                             

3.6 Pathogenesis of Viral Infection.                                                                                        

3.7 Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections.

3.8 Control of Viral Infections.                                                                                               

3.9 Viral Oncogenesis.                                                                                                           

3.10 Viral Genetics.                                                                                                               

3.11 Plant Virology.                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                            

MCB 305: Microbial Ecology          2 Credit units.                                                             

3.1Microbes and Ecological Theory.                                                                                      

3.2 Physiological, Morphological and genetic adaptation of microorganisms to their

      environment.

3.3 Microbial Interactions.

3.3.1 Types of Microbial Interactions (Mutualism, Cooperation, Commensalism,

      Predation, Parasitism, Amensalism, Competition).

3.4 Human Microbe Interactions.

3.4.1 Normal flora of the human body (Skin, Nose & Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Respiratory

       tract, Eye, External ear, Mouth, Stomach, Small intestine, Large intestine, Genitourinary

       tract).

3.4.2 Relationship between microbiota & the host.

3.4.3 Gnotobiotic animals.

3.5 Microbial associations with vascular plants.

3.5.1 Phyllosphere.

3.5.2 Rhizosphere & Rhizoplane.

3.5.3 Mycorrhizae.

3.5.4 Nitrogen fixation (Rhizobia, Actinorhizae, Stem Nodulating rhizobia).

3.5.5 Fungal & Bacterial endophytes.

3.5.6 Agrobacterium & other plant pathogens.                                                                        

3.6 Microorganisms in Ecosystems.                                                                                        

                                                                                                                                            

MCB 306: Soil Microbiology          2 Credit units                                                                

 

3.1 The Characteristics of Soil Environment.                                                                          

3.2 Microbial Flora and Fauna of the Soil.                                                                              

3.3 Microbial Activities in Soil.                                                                                              

3.4 Nitrogen Cycle, Carbon Cycle and Mineral Transformation by Microorganisms.

3.5 Ecological Relationship among Soil Pathogens.                                                               

3.6 Effects of Pesticides on Soil Microorganisms.                                                                    

3.7 Biodegradation and Biofuels Generation.                                                                         

                                                                                                                                            

MCB 307: Mycology          3 Credit units                                                                            

 

3.1 Introduction.

3.1.1 Definitions & History of Mycology.

3.1.2 Characteristics of Fungi.

3.1.3 Differences between Fungi and Plants.                                                                           

3.2 Classification of Fungi.

3.2.1 Zygomycetes.

3.2.2 Ascomycetes.

3.2.3 Basidiomysetes.

3.2.4 Deuteromycetes.

3.2.5 Myxomycetes.

3.2.6 Oomycetes.                                                                                                                   

3.3 Morphology of Fungi.

3.3.1Ultrastructure of fungi.

3.3.2 Structure of mould hyphae.

3.3.3 Types of mould hyphae and hyphal heads.                                                        

3.4 Physiology and Metabolism of fungi.                                                                               

3.5 Reproduction in Fungi.                                                                                                    

3.5.1 Asexual Reproduction (Types of asexual reproduction, Types of asexual spores).

3.5.2 Sexual Reproduction (Methods of sexual reproduction, Types of sexual spores).           

3.6 Economic Importance of Fungi.                                                                                       

3.6.1 In agriculture & medicine.                                                                                             

3.6.2 Toxin production.                                                                                                         

3.6.3 Production of fermented foods, enzymes, organic acids, vitamins, solvents etc.              

3.7 Fungal Diseases.                                                                                                              

3.7.1Superficial mycoses (Tinea versicolar (Pytyriasis versicolar) (ii) Tinea nigra (iii) Piedra (black & white piedra).                                                                                                   

3.7.2 Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment & Control of Superficial Mycoses.                       

3.7.3 Cutaneous mycoses (Tinea barbae, Tinea capitis, Tinea corporis, Tinea cruris, Tinea pedis, Tinea manuum, Tinea unguim).                                                                               

3.7.4 Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment & Control of Cutaneous Mycoses                        

3.7.5 Subcutaneous mycoses (Sporotrichosis, Chromoblastomycosis, Mycetoma,                  

         Phaeohyphomycosis).                                                                                                   

3.7.6 Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment & Control of Subcutaneous Mycoses.                  

3.7.7 Systemic mycoses (Deep mycoses): Cryptococcosis, Histoplasmosis, Coccidioidomycosis,

         Blastomycosis, Paracoccidioidomycosis.                                                                       

3.7.8 Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment & Control of Systemic Mycoses.                         

3.7.9 Oppurtunistic mycoses (Candidosis, Aspergillosis, Zygomycosis, Trichosporonsis,

         Fusarium infection).                                                                                                      

3.7.10 Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment & Control of Oppurtunistic Mycoses.                 

                                                                                                                                            

MCB 308: Pathogenic Microbiology          2 Credit units                                                    

 

3.1 Principles of Disease and Epidemiology.

3.2 Pathology, Infection and Disease.

3.3. Normal microbiota.

3.3.1 Relationship between the normal microbiota and the host opportunistic microorganisms.

3.3.2 Cooperation among microorganisms.

3.4 The Etiology of Infectious Diseases.

3.4.1 Koch’s postulates.

3.4.2 Exception to Koch’s postulates.

3.4.3 Classification Infectious Diseases.

3.4.4 The occurrence of a disease.

3.4.5 The severity or duration of a disease.

3.5 Emerging infectious diseases.

3.5.1The extent of host involvement.

3.6 The Spread of Infection.

3.6.1 Reservoirs of infection (Human, animals and non-living reservoirs).

3.6.2 The transmission of diseases.

3.7 Nosocomial Infections (Hospital Acquired Infections).

3.8 Epidemiology.

3.8.1 Descriptive epidemiology.

3.8.2 Analytical epidemiology.

3.8.3 Case reporting.

3.9 Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity.

3.9.1 Bacterial pathogens.

3.9.2 Non- bacterial pathogens (viruses, fungi, protozoa, helminthes and algae).

3.10 Bacterial Diseases Especially those Prevalent in Africa.                                                   

3.11 Fungal Diseases.                                                                                                            

3.12 Protozoan Diseases.

3.13 Genetic Diagnosis of microorganisms.                                                                             

                                                                                                    

MCB 309: Microbiological Techniques          3 Credit units                                                

 

3.1 Culture Media and their Preparation.                                                                                

3.2 Pure Culture Techniques.                                                                                                 

3.3 Enumeration of Microorganisms.                                                                                      

3.4 Collection, Transportation, Preservation and Processing of Specimens.                             

3.5 Identification of Microorganisms.                                                                                     

3.6 Microbiological Assay of Vitamins.                                                                                  

3.7 Scientific Writing.                                                                                                            

3.7.1 Project writing: Abstract, Introduction, Literature review, Materials and Methods, Discussion, Conclusion & Recommendation, References.                                  

                                                                                                                                            

MCB 310: Parasitology I         2 Credit units

 

3.1 Protozoology.

3.1.1 Brief history of protozoology.

3.1.2 Ecology and host parasite relationship (parasitism and symbiosis).

3.1.3 Basis of host cell parasite interactions with special reference to autoimmune response and

         pathogenesis of protozoan diseases in general.

3.1.4 Zoonotic potentiality of protozoa.

3.2 Amoeba.

3.2.1 Non pathogenic and pathogenic amoeba.

3.2.2 Morphology and life cycle of amoeba.

3.3 Pathology, Symptomatology & Laboratory Diagnosis of Giardia (G. limblia).

3.4 Pathology, Symptomatology & Laboratory Diagnosis of Flagellates of genital tract

      Trichomonas (T. tenax, T. hominis, T. vaginalis).

3.5 Pathology, Symptomatology & Laboratory Diagnosis of Malaria parasite (Plasmodium vivax,

     P. malariae, P. ovale).

3.5.1 Genaral life cycle of Malaria parasite in man and anopheles mosquitoes.

3.5.2 Sequal of malaria.

3.6 Life cycle, Symptomatology, Transmission and Laboratory diagnosis of

      Toxoplasmosis.

 

MCB 399: Industrial Attachment          6 Credit units                                                          

 

3.1 Twenty (24) Weeks of Supervised Training must be spent in a Clinical Laboratory, Research

      laboratory or an Industrial Microbiology Laboratory.

3.1.1 Seminar presentation.

3.1.2 Writing of technical report.                                 

                                                                                                                             

400 LEVEL COURSE CONTENT

MCB 401: Pharmaceutical Microbiology          3 Credit units

 

4.1 Clinical Uses of Antimicrobial Drugs.                                                                               

4.2 Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

4.3 Development of Chemotherapy.

4.4 General Characteristics of Antimicrobial Drugs.

4.5 Determining the Level of Antimicrobial Activity.

4.6 Mechanisms of Action of Antimicrobial Agents.

4.7 Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Antimicrobial Agents.

4.8 Antibacterial Drugs (Sulphonamides, Quinolines, Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Tetracyclines,

    Aminoglycosides, Macrolides, Chloramphenicol).

4.9 Drug Resistance.

4.10 Antifungal Agents.

4.11 Antiviral Agents.

4.12 Microbial Spoilage and Preservation of Pharmaceutical Products.                                    

4.13 Sterile Pharmaceutical Products.                                                                                     

4.14 Sterilization Procedures and Sterility Assurance.                                                              

4.15 Factory and Hospital Hygiene.                                                                                       

 

MCB 402: Research Project         6 Credit units                                                                   

An investigation carried-out under supervision on a microbiological problem.                        

                                                                                                                                            

MCB 403: Industrial Microbiology          4 Credit units                                                      

 

4.1 Scope of Industrial Microbiology.                                                                                      

4.1.1Characteristics of Industrial Microbiology.                                                                      

4.1.2 Patents and Intellectual property rights in Industrial Microbiology.                                 

4.1.3 Organizational set-up in an Industrial Microbiology Establishment.                               

4.2 Microorganisms of Importance in Industrial Microbiology.                                               

4.3 Industrial Media and Nutrition of Industrial Microorganisms.                                            

4.3.1The basic nutrient requirements of Industrial Media.                                                       

4.3.2 Criteria for the choice of raw materials used in Industrial Media.                                     

4.3.3 Some raw materials used in compounding industrial media                                           

4.4 Batch & Continuous fermentation.                                                                                    

4.5 Metabolic Pathways for the Biosynthesis of Industrial Microbiology Products.                  

4.6 Strain Improvement in Industrial Microorganisms.                                                            

4.7 The Place of Culture Collections in Industrial Microbiology.                                            

4.8 Sterility in Industrial Microbiology.                                                                                  

4.9 Major Products of Industrial Microbiology.                                                                       

4.9.1 Beers (Barley beers and alcoholic beverages).                                                                

4.9.2 Wines and Spirits.                                                                                                         

4.9.3 Single Cell Protein.                                                                                                       

4.9.4 Microbial Insecticides.                                                                                                   

4.9.5 Organic acids (Citric acid, Lactic acid, Acetic acid).                                                        

4.9.6 Industrial alcohol.                                                                                                         

4.9.7 Amino acids.                                                                                                                

4.9.8 Industrial enzymes.                                                                                                       

4.9.9 Vaccines.

4.9.10Antibiotics and Anti-tumour Agents.

4.9.11 Ergot Alkaloids.                                                                                         

4.10 Mining Microbiology: Ore Leaching (Bioleaching) by Microorganisms.                         

4.11 Microbial Transformation of Steroids and Sterols.                                                           

4.12 Treatment of Wastes in Industry.                                                                                    

                                                                                                                                            

MCB 404: Principles of Epidemiology and Public Health          3 Credit units                    

 

4.1 Defination, Historical Evolution of Epidemiology.

4.2 Statistical Applications to Epidemiology.                                                                        

4.3 Nature of Epidemics.                                                                                                      

4.4 Epidemiological Investigations.                                                                                      

4.5 Spectrum of Infectious Multifactorial Systems in Epidemics.                                           

4.6 Zoonoses.                                                                                                                      

4.7 Antigenic Drifts.                                                                                                             

4.8 Biological Products for Immunization.                                                                            

4.9 Recommended Immunization Schedules.                                                                       

4.10 International Control of Infectious Diseases                                                                   

 

 

MCB 405: Principles of Genetic Engineering             3 Units

 

4.1 Basic steps of r-DNA technology.

4.2 Enzymes used in r-DNA technology.

4.3 Restriction endonucleases and their types (I, II & III).

4.4. Restriction mapping.

4.5. Ligation- joining of DNA molecules together.

4.5.1 Blunt end ligation, joining with linkers, adapters & homopolymer tailing.
4.6 Cloning vectors.

4.6.1 General properties of cloning vectors.

4.6.2 Plasmids.

4.6.3 Bacteriophages.

4.6.4 Cosmids.

4.6.5 Shuttle vectors.

4.6.6 Bacterial artificial chromosomes.

4.6.7 Eukaryotic cloning vectors for yeast, higher plants & animal cells.

4.7 Introduction of recombinant vectors into bacterial & non bacterial cells.

4.8 Selection of clones.

4.8.1 Colony hybridization.

4.8.2 Plaque hybridization.

4.8.3 Immunochemical methods & southern blotting.

4.9 Gene libraries.

4.9.1 Genomic library (Shot gun approach).

4.9.2 cDNA library (Different methods for synthesizing c DNA molecules).

4.10 Expression vectors for expressing foreign genes in Escherichia coli.

4.10.1 Problems associated with the production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. 4.10.2 Production of recombinant proteins by eukaryotic cells.

4.10 Non-radioactive & radioactive labelling of probes.

4.11 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP).

4.12 DNA finger printing.

4.13 Radomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD).

4.14 Northern blotting.

4.15 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods & applications.

4.16 DNA sequencing methods.

4.16.1 Dideoxy and chemical methods.

4.16.2 Strategies for sequencing large DNA fragments.

4.16.3 Automated sequencing.

4.17 Applications of gene techonology.

4.17.1 Production of pharmaceuticals (Humulin, somatotropin, somatostatin, recombinant

           vaccines).

 

MCB 406: Analytical Microbiology & Quality Control          3 Credit units      

 

4.1 Biological Control of Soil-borne Microbial Pathogens and Nematodes.

4.2 Basic Concepts and Definitions of Terms in Analytical Microbiology.                              

4.2.1 Quality control and Quality assurance.                                                                          

4.3 Scope and Relevance of Analytical Microbiology.                                                           

4.4 Microbiological Assays.

4.4.1 Meaning, Types and Tests Microorganisms used as Reagents for Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses.                                     

4.4.2 Choice of microorganisms for analytical microbiological assays.                                    

4.4.3 Use of microorganisms for Amino acid assay: Principles, procedures and applications.

4.4.4 Use of microorganisms for vitamin assay: principles, procedures and applications.

4.4.5 Use of microorganisms for toxicity testing and carcinogenicity.                                     

4.4.6 Principles and procedures for antibiotic sensitivity testing and efficacy of vaccines/ other

         antimicrobial agents.                                                                                                     

4.4.7 Assay samples/ sampling: types and preparation.                                                           

4.4.8 Rapid methods in Analytical Microbiology: rationale, specific methods, principles and application of each method.                                             

4.5    Microbiological Analysis, Criteria and Standards or Specifications for Foods, Water,

         Cosmetics and Drugs.                                                                                                   

4.6    Stages of Microbiological Quality control with reference to named product manufacture.

4.7    The Concepts of Hazards Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCPs) and Good

         manufacturing practices                                                                                                

4.8    Plant and Equipment Sanitation: Concepts, Use of Sanitizers, Detergents, Cleaning

         Operations, and Efficacy of Sanitizers and Sanitation Practices.                                      

4.9    Industrial Visit to the Quality Control Unit of a Factory.                                                

                                                                                                                                            

 

MCB 407: Seminar         2 Credit units                                                                                

Students Review and Present Seminar on Selected Topics on Various Areas of Microbiology and Biotechnology.                   

                                                                                                                                            

 

MCB 408: Petroleum Microbiology          3 Credit units                                                     

 

4.1 Biogenesis of Fossil Fuels with emphasis on the Role of Microorganisms.                        

4.2 The Use of Microorganisms in Petroleum Prospecting, Recovery and Degradation.

4.3 Biodegradation of Petroleum Products.

4.4 Microbial Corrosion of Pipes and Equipment.

4.5 Acetogenesis.                                                                                                                   

4.6 Methanogenesis.                                                                                                              

4.7 Methane - Utilizing Bacteria.                                                                                            

 

MCB 409: Toxicology                                                                                                         

 

4.1 Introduction.

4.1.1 Different areas of toxicology.

4.1.2 Historical development.

4.1.3 Toxic effects.

4.1.4 Dose.

4.2 Poisons.

4.2.1 Poisonous animals.

4.2.2 Toxic plants.

4.2.3 Toxic effects of solvents and vapours.

4.2.4 Toxic effects of metals.

4.2.5 Radiation and radioactive materials.

4.3 Food Additives and Contaminants.

4.3.1 Nature and source of likely and significant contaminants.

4.3.2 Major microbial contaminants.

4.3.3 Notable examples of contaminants.

4.4 Drinking Water Safety.

4.4.1 Drinking water standards.

4.4.2 Pathogenic microorganisms in water.

4.4.3 Inorganic chemical contaminants of water (Arsenic, chlorination, lead, nitrates, aluminium,

         fluorides etc).

4.5 Selected Marine Toxins (Tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, cigratera, scombroid, toxic mussels,

     diarrhetic shellfish, conus snails, microcystins).

                                                                                                                             

MCB 411: Immunology and Immunochemistry          4 Credit units                                   

 

4.1 Historical Perspective/Basic Concepts of Immunology.                                                     

4.1.1 Innate and adaptive immunity.                                                                                      

4.1.2 Definition of terms.                                                                                                       

4.1.3 Cells and tissues of the immune systems.                                                                       

4.1.2 Organs involved in immune system.                                                                             

4.2 Phagocytosis.                                                                                                                   

4.3 The Complement System.                                                                                                

4.3.1 Antibodies (Immunoglobulin).                                                                                      

4.3.2 Structure, function, classes, specificity of antibodies, sources of antibodies.                    

4.3.3 Antigen – antibody reactions.                                                                                       

4.3.4 Cell mediated immune response.                                                                                    

4.4 Hypersensitivity.                                                                                                              

4.5 Immunological Tolerance.                                                                                               

4.6 Autoimmunity and Immunodeficiency.                                                                            

4.7 Transplantation.                                                                                                               

4.8 Immunosuppression.                                                                                                        

4.9 Immune Responses and Infectious Agents.                                                                       

4.9.1 Antibacterial responses, specific immune responses to virus.                                          

4.9.2 Specific immune responses to fungi.                                                                             

4.9.3 Specific immune responses to parasites.                                                                         

4.9.4 Other immune responses.                                                                                              

4.10 Antimicrobial Vaccines.                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                            

MCB 412: Environmental Microbiology          2 Credit units                                             

 

4.1 Concepts in Environmental Microbiology.                                                                       

4.2 Characteristics of Soil Microflora and fauna.                                                                     

4.3 Biodegradation (Microbial degradation of lignocellulosic substances, keratin and chitin).

4.4 Biogeochemical cycling (Microbes in nutrient cycling with special reference to carbon,

      phosphorus, sulphur and Nitrogen Cycle.                                                                                      

4.5 Biodeterioration.

4.5.1 Microbial deterioration of paper, textile, wood and paint.

4.5.2 Microbial corrosion of metals.

4.6 Bioremediation.

4.6.1 Microbial degradation of pesticides, hydrocarbons, clean-up of sites polluted with oil spills, heavy metals and chlorinated solvents.

4.6.2 Biological treatment of effluents of sugar, pulp and paper.

4.7 Mineral Transformations.

4.7.1 Recovery of minerals and metals from ores.                                                                    

4.8 Microbiology of Aquatic Environments.                                                                          

4.9 Microbiology of Water Supplies.

4.9.1 Municipal water treatment (disinfection).

4.9.2 Microbiological analysis of water. (Bacterial indicators of water quality).

4.9.3 Major waterborne diseases and their control.

4.10 Air Microbiology.

4.10.1 Structure and Dynamics of Microbial Population in the Air, Laboratories, Hospitals and living rooms.

4.10.2 Microbiological Analysis of Air.

4.10.3 Major airborne diseases and their preventive measures.                                                  

4.11 Sewage Treatment and Disposal.                                                                                    

 

MCB 413: Food Microbiology          2 Credit units                                                             

 

4.1 Classification, Identification and Enumeration of Microorganisms Important in Food.

4.2 Food Spoilage.                                                      

4.3 Principles of Food Preservation (High and low temperature, radiation, pressure, additives and drying).                                                                    

4.4 Foodborne Diseases.

4.4.1 Food poisoning.

4.4.2 Food infection.                                                                                                             

4.5 Sanitation and Inspection of Food Processing Plants and Canteens.                                  

4.6 Microbiology of Some Fermented Foods.                                                                         

4.6.1 Dairy Products (Yoghurt, Cheese and Butter).                                                                

4.6.2 Bakery Products (Bread).                                                                                               

4.6.3 Vinegar.                                                                                                                        

4.6.4 Alcoholic beverages (Beer, Wines and Distilled Spirits).                                                

4.6.5 Non - alcoholic beverages and gruels (Kunun-zaki, akamu or ogi etc).                           

4.6.6 Traditional alcoholic beverages (Burukutu, Pito, Palm wine, Keffir beer, Oyokpo etc).

4.7 Microbiological Detection of Preservatives and Antibiotics in Foods.                                

 

MCB 414: Fermentation Microbiology/Technology          2 Credit units                            

 

4.1 Introduction to Fermentation Processes.                                                                            

4.2 Media Used for Fermentation.                                                                                          

4.3 Components of Fermentation Processes.                                                                           

4.4 Types, Functions and Design of Fermenters.                                                                     

4.5 Bioseparation Techniques (Downstream Processing Techniques) - Precipitation,

      Filtration, Centrifugation, Cell Disruption, Electrophoresis, Chromatographic

      techniques.

                                                                                                                                              

ELECTIVES

 

MCB 415: Agricultural Microbiology          3 Credit units                                                  

 

4.1 Microbiology of Soils.                                                                                                     

4.2 Microorganisms as biofertilizers.                                                                                       

4.3 Microbiology of Fruits and vegetables.                                                                             

4.4 Diseases of Agricultural Crops and Control.

4.5 Microorganisms as biopesticides.                                                                     

4.5 Post Harvest Microbiology.

4.6 Aspects of Veterinary Microbiology                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                              

MCB 416: Developmental Microbiology          2 Credit units                                              

 

4.1 Microbial Growth.                                                                                                            

4.2 Methods in Assessing Microbial Growth.                                                                          

4.3 Spore Development and Germination in Bacteria and Actinomycetes.                              

4.4 Cyst Formation.                                                                                                               

4.5 Biosynthesis of Cell wall Polymers.                                                                                  

                                                                                                                                              

MCB 417: Analytical Food Microbiology           2 Credit units                                           

 

4.1 Sampling and Preparatory Treatment of Samples.                                                             

4.2 Enumeration Techniques for Bacteria, Yeast and Moulds.                                                

4.3 Examination techniques of and Microbiological Standards for: Fresh and Fermented

      Milk and Milk Products, Canned Foods, Sugar and Non-alcoholic Drinks.                       

4.4 Microbiological Detection of Preservatives and Antibiotics in Foods.                                

                                                                                                                                              

MCB 418: Economic Microbiology           2 Credit units                                                     

4.1 Economic Aspects of Antibiotic Exploitation from Microorganisms.                                 

4.2 Survey and Selection of Nigerian Microorganisms for Antibiotic production.                    

4.3 Antibiotic Assays.                                                                                                            

4.4 Industrial Exploitation of Microorganisms for the Benefit of Man.                                     

4.4.1 Enzymes.                                                                                                                      

4.4.2 Alcoholic Beverages.                                                                                                    

4.5 Microbiology of Steroids and the Economics.